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The Magazine For Apple III Owners and User$ 



(I III III III III III III III III III III III III III III III III III III 



Volume 3 - Number 2 



February 1986 
$4.00 U.S. 



Revievifs: 

Lexicheck 
Post Master 



■■m 


■ 




f i 


'**^''^^'^'*^^^^^^^^^^^^ 




= Increased Productivity Through Your IVIore Powerful 51 2K Apple III! 



ON THREE Presents. . . 

For everyone who has wished for more memory in their Apple III or 
Apple III plus - here it isi 

The ON THREE 51 2K Memory Upgrade is a simple replacement memory 
board, and all programs running under SOS will work with it. How would 
you like your Visicolc (regular and Advanced version), /// E-Z Pieces, Ap- 
plewnter, Business Basic, Selector ///, Catalyst and others to have about' 
450Ktoworkwith^ 

It you hove ever run out of room with a huge spreadsheet model, the 
51 2K Memory Upgrade is just what you need. Just think of the forecasts 
that you could create with your 51 2K Apple lll\ If you hove ever filled 
memory working with on Apple III program like Visicolc or /// E-Z Pieces, 
the 51 2K Memory Upgrade will give you the room you need. The extra 
memory will give your Visicolc or /// E-Z Pieces spreadsheets room for the 
largest model that you con imagine, 

How would you like to be able to type PRINT PRE in Apple III Business Basic 
and the response that comes book is; 467452. That's over 456K of 
available space in Business Basic. With that much room, the Apple III s 

version of Basic is one of the most powerful on the market. 

Hove you ever hod problems putting some programs on your ProFile 
hard disk while running under Catalyst? Since Catalyst takes up a good 
portion of memory, there ore times when there isn't enough memory to 
go around, Many programs will not run at all under Catalyst because of 
memory limitations. Some programs will run only on minimal Catalyst 
systems. That means no spooling, no special purpose utilities like ONTIME 



or the Colendar-Pak, and a lot of dynamic driver loading. Who needs 
problems like this? With the 51 2K Memory Upgrade, your problems with 
programs not fitting while running under Catalyst will be solved. You will 
be able to put Lazarus and Draw CN under Catalyst and have your Draw 
CN pictures being printed out while you undelete a tile with Lazarus or 
even work on your word processing with Applewnter or Word Juggler. 
The BPI system and all other large programs such as Keystroke will now fit 
easily under Catalyst. 

Included in the 51 2K Memory Upgrade package is a diskette that will 
check your memory for any errors, thus giving you confidence that your 
51 2K Memory Upgradeworks correctly. In addition to the confidence pro- 
gram, we ore including a new disk drive for your Apple lll-o RomDisk 
drive! This disk drive is simply a new device driver that takes a portion of 
your 5^2K Apple III s memory and uses it as an ultra-fast disk drive. If you 
wont, you con odd this driver to your disks to store and retrieve informa- 
tion at lightning fast speeds. Using one of the popular program switching 
utilities like Selector /// or Catalyst, you can use the RamDisk for quickly 
storing information that you need to transfer from one program to 
another. 

The 51 2K Memory Upgrade is the single most exciting thing to happen to 
the Apple III in a long, long time. Using state of the art 256K memory 
chips, the board is very simple to install and even easier to use. The 51 2K 
Memory Upgrade will NOT take up an expansion slot as it is a simple 
board swopout. Just keep on using your existing programs~you don't 
have to change them! Visicolc, Advanced Visicolc, /// E-Z Pieces, 
Applewnter, Business Bosic, Poscol, Catalyst, Selector /// and many other 
programs will automatically hove about 450K of memory to work with. 



The ON THREE 51 2K Memory Upgrade 

is specially priced at only $399*'* 

The 51 2K Memory Updrade includes . 

1) An>»pp/e///512K Memory Board using state of the art 256K memory chips. 

2) The Confidence Memory Program which will ensure that your 51 2K Memory 

Board is working correctly. 

3) The RAM ultra-fast RamDisk drive with demonstration programs. 

4) The Upgrade to 51 2K Utility that will update all of your disks so that they will 
work with the memory upgrade, and the updated version (1 .2) of the System 
Utilities program that permits larger SOS DRIVER files. 

5) Complete Instructions for installation and use. 

6) A full 90-day Warranty 

*The ON THREE 51 2K Memory Updgrade can only be used on a 256K4pp/e /// 
or an Apple /// Plus. If you have an old 1 28K 4pp/e /// the upgrade costs $449* + 
shipping (there is no rebate), and it must be installed by a dealer or by ON 
THREE We offer same day turnaround on 256K or 51 2K memory upgrades and 
charge only $50 plus shipping for the installation. 

^The purchase price of the 51 2K Memory Upgrade is $449* plus shipping. After 
installing the new 51 2K Memory Board, return your old 256K memory board to 
us and you will get a rebate of $50. 
*Prlce effective through 1/31/86 only. 



Ordering Information 




Item: 


Price: 


Shipping: 


512K Memory Upgrade 


$ 449 


+ $10.00 


A143 560K Floppy Disk 


$ 399 


+ $ 6.50 


A3 143K Disk Drive 


$ 299 


+$ 6.50 


Trustor 10H Hard Disk (Main Drive) 


$ 999 


+ $35.00 


Trustor 10H Hard Disk (Second Drive) 


$ 899 


+ $35.00 


Trustor 10H Combo (Main and Second) 


$1848 


+ $70.00 


Trustor 30 Hard Disk 


$1999 


+ $35.00 


Draw ON /// Graphics Tool 


$ 179 


+ $ 5.00 


(Specify which printer and interface card you ai-e using.) | 


Apple /// Fruit Machine 


$ 19.95 


+ $ 2.00 


Apple /// Card Machine 


$ 24.95 


+ $ 2.00 


Game Combo (Fruit & Card Machine) 


$ 39.95 


+ $ 3.00 


Lazarus /// File Restoration 


$ 49.95 


+ $ 2.00 


ON THREE O'clock 


$ 49.95 


+ $ 3.00 


ONTIME Utility Package 


$ 39.95 


+ $ 2.00 


ON THREE O'clock - ONTIME Combo 


$ 79.90 


+ $ 4.00 


ON THREE 






4478 Market Street, Suite 701-702 




Ventura. California 93003 




To place on order over the phone, coll (805) 644-3514 direct 


California residents add 6% sales tax for products (not shipping) 


We accept Visa Mastercard and American Express.* 


'Per our usual policy we will give schools 


governmen 


agencies 


and Fortune 500 companies NET-15 terms. We do not extend | 


credit to individuals or companies 






*3% surcl^arge on AE. 







Publisher: 

Bob Consorti 
Editor: 

Vol J. Golding 

Comptroller: 

Joseph Consorti 
Logistics: 

Janet Schanz 
Interior Art: 

Virginia Carol 
Technical Support: 

Rob Turner 
Order Dept.: 

Claudia White 

Typography: 

West Coast Typogrcphy 
Van Nuys, CA 
Printing: 

California Offset Printers, I 
Glendale, CA 



ON JHIltE *- The Reference Source for f/ie Apple /// is publistied monthly by 
ON IHKE, 4478 Marbt Street Suite 701, Venture, CA 93003. (P.O. Box 3825 
Ventura, CA 93006.1 

For c copy of auttior guidelines, send c stomped, self oddressed envelope to 
the cbove address. Current page rate; $35 per printed page. 

Return postage must accompany all manuscripts, disbttes and drawings 
submitted if they ore to be returned. All manuscripts longer than 500 words or 
program listings longer than one half page must be accomponied by a disktte 
if they ore to be considered. No responsibilify can be assumed for unsolicited 
materials. 

All letters received by ON JHI^EE unless specifically morlced to the contrary, will 
be considered as unconditionally assigned for publication and are subject to 
ON three's right to edit end comment editorially 

Subscription information: 

U.S.: $40 for 12 issues. 

For First Class service, remit en extra $12 
Foreign subscription information: 

Canada, Mexico, APO, FPO $20 aSlional. $60 total. 

So. America, Europe; $24 additional, $64 total. 

Pac. Islands, Asia, Australia, Mid east: $29 additional, $69 total. 

Bcclc Issue^; 

Available ct $5 ecch. Please indicate issues desired on the enclosed 
order form. 

Postage for ON THREE products: 

U.S.; listed on enclosed product price sheet. 
Canada and Mexico; double listed US prices. 
Outside North America; triple listed US prices. 

All funds nw/ be remitted in U.S. Dollars drawn on c U.S. bcnl( or funds in your 
native currency at the current exchange rate drawn on c banl( in your 
country. 

Group purchases must have one common mailing address. Please contcct ON 
THREE ct the above address for information on current volume pricing and 
terms. 

ON THREE IS c registered trademark of ON THREE. Apple, Apple 11, Apple " 
plus, Apple "/, Apple /// plus, Applesoft, Apple Business Basic, Disic !!, Disic '//, 
Lisa, lisaDraw, Macintosh, MocPainI, MacWrite and ProFile are registered 
trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. Micro Sci and Gameport /// are registered 
trademarl(s of Standum Controls, Inc. Selector .'/.' is a registered trademark of 
Sobre Software, Inc. ON THREE O'Clock Lazarus ///, Draw On and ONTIME 
are registered trademarks of ON THREE, the Apple //' mogozine. 

Opinions expressed in this magazine ere those of individuals authors and staff 
and not necessarily those of ON THREE. 

Entire contents copyright ^]9iS by ON THREE. All rights reserved. 




Volume 3, No. 2 



Table of Contents 



February, 1 9QB 



Connecting RGB and NTSC Monitors 

Graphically Speaking 

Melvin A. Astrahan, Ph.D 

the author of draw on /// offers some 
pertinent advice on installing your first 
color monitor 



Technique: 

Transf ering Foto files to ProDOS 8 

Finn Jorgensen 

guided by advice from the good doctor 
^::^^:;:^ii above, here are step-by-step instructions 
to transport those pictures 

The /// Lives in Colorado: 

Denver is More Than Dynasty 9 

Carol Chrzanowski 

views and reviews from the mile-high 
city, livmg proof the /// lives 

Review ON: Quark Products: 

And in a Supporting Roll. . . 13 

Arthur A. Schumer 

looking at four word juggler support 
programs; lexicheck, mail list manager 
interface, typeface, and discourse 



FEATURES 

A Footnote on Footnotes: 
5 AppleWriter: A footnote 



17 



John Lomartire 

at last, a technique to use applewriter 
///'s footnote capability to its fullest 

Utility: 

Fooling the 

Apple Dot Matrix Printer 19 

Jerry Lewicki 

sometimes those @#!X%&?* printer 
codes get so confusing you give up. 
no more 

Evaluating Software: 

Computer Applications ... 22 

Llona Cunningham 

sound advice on getting the most for 
your money with software 

Creating a System: 

In the Beginning. . . 30 

Kevin FitzMaurice 

detailed instructions to put you in the 
driver's seat 



DEPARTMENTS 



Call Three: Hot Line 

help lines for ///'s users 



Apple /// User Groups 

if you can't find one, form one 



The Editor Dishes it Gut: 

Apple.Sauce C 

Val J. Golding 

an atlas of what's where in on three, 
along with miscellaneous puns and fun 



Notes from the Publisher: 

Block_Write 

Bob Consorti 

uncle bob speaks his piece, the boss's 
column 

Something New, Not Blue: 

Three New Products 

when we find 'em, we print 'em 
Reading the Mail: 

Three Questions 21 

typical topics from typical readers 

De Classifieds 29 

where readers ads reach readers 



16 



ON: The Cover 
This month the ON TFHREE cover symbolizes the "I Love My Apple ///" 
logo and the spirit of St. Valentine's day. You CBn support the ///with 
our wild t-shirts, sweat shirts and caps. [See references elsewhere.] 

Cover art by Virginia Carol 



ON THREE January, 1 SBB 



Call Three: Hot Line/Apple/// User Groups 



If you would lib to get together with other Apple /// owners and exchange ideas, a user group is for you. 
Below is a listing of all Apple /// user groups known to us. If you have recently formed a group or know of one we 
have not listed here, please contact ON THREE and let us know so that they may be included. There is no charge 
for this service. 



Coiifomia 

Sacramento Apple /// User Group 
1433 Elsdon Circle 
CarmichoeiCA 95608 
(916) 482-6660 

Orange County Apple /// User Group 
22501 Eloise Ave. 
El Toro, CA 92630 
(714) 951-1231 

Fresno Area Apple /// User Group 
4175 N. Blackstone 
Fresno, CA 93726 
(209) 224-2983 

Los Angeles-South Bay 
Apple /// Users Group 
c/o Sun Computers 
1848 Pacific Coast Highway 
Lomifo, CA 90717 
(213)541-2311 



Apple /// Users of Northern California 
220 Redwood Highway #184 
Mill Valley, CA 94941 
(415) 383-0203 

Psychologists on /// 
West Covina/Glendora 
Apple /// User Group 
413 W. Heatherglen Lane 
San Dimas, CA 91773 
(818)963-2980 

Canada 

Apples British Columbia Computer Society 

Apple /// S.I.G. 

P.O. Box 80569 

Burnaby, BC Canada V5H3X9 

Colorado 

Colorado Apple Three User Group 
6818 S. Magnolia Ct. 
Englewood, CO 80112 



Florida 

Sarasota Apple /// User Group 
c/o Computer Centre 
909 S. Tamiami Trail 
Nokomis, PL 33555 
(813) 484-0421 

Georgia 

Atlanta /// Society 
385 Saddle Lab Drive 
Roswell, GA 30076 
(404)992-3130 

Illinois 

MThiriJ Apple Users Group 
P.O. Box 176 
Chicago, IL 60690 

Kansas 

Kansas City Apple /// User Group 
3800 Cambridge 
Kansas City, KS 66103 
(913) 588-6025 



Maine 

So. Maine Apple Users Group 
Cosco St. 

Freeport ME 04033 
(207) 865-4761 

Maryland 

Apple /// SIG Chairman 
Washington Apple Pi 
mi Woodmont Ave. #201 
Bethesdo, MD 20814 
(314) 654-8060 

Massachusetts 

Applesauce 
24 Dicl<inson St. 
Amherst, MA 01002 

New Jersey 

North Jersey Apple /// Users Group 
c/o Roger T. Richardson 
P.O. Box 251 
Allamuchy, NJ 07820 
(201)852-7710 



Ohio 

Cincinafti Apple /// User Group 
7960 Shelldale Way 
Cincinafti, OH 45252 

Overseas 

Apple /// Owners & Users 
Group International 
c/o Maj. H. Joseph Dobrowlski 
AF SOUTH/JLD Box 149 
FPO New York 09524 

Texas 

Apple Corps of Dallas 
Apple /// SIG 
P.O. Box 5537 
Richardson, TX 75080 

Houston Area Apple Users 
Group (Apple /// Division) 
P.O. Box 610150 
Houston, TX 77063 
(713) 688-3102 or 974-5153 



Virginia 

Charlottsville Apple /// User Group 
216 Turkey Ridge Road 
Charlottsville, VA 22901 

Greater Tidewater 

Apple /// User Group 

Route 2, Box 216 

Hayes, VA 23072 

(804) 642-5655 or 898-3500, ext. 2671 

Washington 

Seattle Apple /// User Group 
9630 240th Place SW 
Edmonds, WA 98020 
(206) 546-3019 



The Call Three: Hot Line is a service 
whereby Appie /// users with problems 
can call an area number to get 
assistance. The individuals answering 
the phones are tellow Apple /// users 
who have volunteered to help others 
over some of the rough spots. They are 
not compensated for this service, 
therefore we owe then a resounding 
"three cheers." 

We would like to expand this service 
even further, so if you are familiar 
enough with your machine to be able 
to aid others and answer questions, 
please write us, stating your areas of 
expertise and availability in terms of 
days and hours. Certainly you can bask 
in the knowledge that you have been 
able to help a fellow Apple /// user. 



For those of you who have questions, 
feel free to call our consultants listed 
below. Please observe however, the 
calling hours shown and before plac- 
ing a call, double check the time zone 
so that you don't inadvertantly wake 
someone up! There are no other restric- 
tions on using the service other than as 
stated above. Again, please remember 
these people are volunteers, and if we 
receive information indicating that 
calling hours are not being observed, 
we will have no choice but to remove 
the consultant from the listing or, worse, 
discontinue the service. 

The following is an alphabetical 
listing of subjects and abbreviations 
used in the "subjects" column o f the 
consultants listing. |777 



Subject code subject code 



Accounting 

Agriculture 

Assembly 

Lang. 

Business 

Basic 

Catalyst 

Cobol 

CP/M 

Data Base 

Education 
Financial 
Fortran 
General 



AC 
AG 
AL 

BB 

CT 
CO 
CP 
DB 

ED 
Fl 

FO 
GE 



Graphics 
Micro-Sci 
Modems 

Pascal 

ProFile 
Quark 
SOS 

Spread- 
sheets 
Telecom. 
Word Proc. 
Emulation 
/// E-Z 
Pieces 



GR 
IVll 
IVID 

PA 

PR 
QU 
SO 
SS 

TO 
WP 
AE 
EP 



Name State Teleptione Days Hours 

Coville Woodburn NH (603)863-5590 M,Tu,Th,F 7-8pm 

Ken Johnson MA (413)253-2298 Su-Sa 6-9pm 

DonLoosli Ml (313)626-3848 M-F 9am-5pm 

Richard F. Malley CT (203)232-9505 M,Tu,W,F 6-9pm 

Harry T Hanson, Ph.D. NJ (201) 467-0712 M-F 6-9pm 

Edward N. Gooding, Sr. VA (804)747-8751 Su-So 6-9pm 

Al Johnson FL (904)739-1042 M-F 9am-6pm 

Paul Sanchez FL (305)266-5965 Su-So 10am-4pm 

John & Lisa Beckett MO (417)678-2500 M-F 6-9pm 

J. Donald Glenn NE (402)291-9177 Su-Th 7-1 Oom 

JimFerencak IL (312)599-7505 M-F 10am-5pm 

Neil Quellhorst IL (217)434-8727 Su-So 7-9pm 

David B.Hays KS (316)722-1242 M-F 7-1 1pm 

Terri Wiles CO (303)850-7472 Su-So 10am-6pm 

PatHolwagner CA (415)433-2323 M-F 10am-6pm 

Vincent F. Lotona CA (818)703-0330 M-F 9am-5pm 

Carl & Anita Reynolds CA (714) 734-9324 MJu,Fr 4pm-9pm 

Wayne Hale CA (619)4503856 M-F 7-1 1am 

Dennis R. Cohen CA (818) 956-8559 Su-Th 1 0am-1 0pm 

Kelly CMcGrew WA (206)943-8533 Su-So 6-1 0pm 



Zone Subjects 

Eastern CT, QU 

Eastern BB, PA MD, WP, Ml 

Eastern GE, WP, SS, DB 

Eastern GE, SO, WP, SS, QU, CT PR 

Eastern CO, SS, PR, MD, CT 

Eastern CO, SS, PR, MD, CT 

Eastern GE 

Eastern SS, PR, CT 

Central GE 

Central GE 

Central GE, EP, DB 

Central AL, BB, GR, PA SO, TO 

Central GE 

Mountain PA 

Pacific GE, SS, WP, CT DB, SU, AE, EP 

Pacific GE, WP, BB, SS, AE 

Pacific GE 

Pacific BB, GR, CT 

Pacific GE 

Pacific DB, GR, SS, PR, MD, CT 



February, 1 3BB ON THREE 



The Editor Dishes it Out: 

Apple.Souce 



vol j. golding 



FreebieS/Threebies 

Freebies are giveaways, and (double entendre here) the purpose 
of this column is to "give away" a few hints about our story line-up 
for this issue and to tempt you to flip the pages and start reading. 
(Betcha can't read just one.) Secondly, we're giving away the stories 
themselves. ON THREE is the source for Apple /// information and 
resources. As we move back into high gear, our intent is to provide 
you with a balance of material, whether you are a beginning user, 
an experienced hacker, or somewhere in between. 

While we're doing all of this giving, you too can give by letting us 
know what you want to read about, what subjects appeal to you 
most. And while you're at it, it might not be a bad idea to pass on to 
us some of those sneaky little tricks you've learned, tricks that just 
might help another reader out of a tight spot. There are a couple of 
ways you can do it. You can pound out a brief note to the editor, and 
we will post haste post it in our Three Questions letters column or, 
you might try your hand at writing an article for us. We certainly 
have a constant need for new and fresh material. Speaking of Three 
Questions, that's what our letters column is designed for, to answer 
questions. So if you are stumped on something, give it a try. ON 
THREE is your Apple /// support group. 

Introductions ore in Order 

In a single paragraph, we'd like to introduce Mel Astrohon and 

his new column, Grophicolly Speaking, which leads off this issue. 
Mel is the author of ON THREE's famous drawing program, the 
Draw ON /// Graphics Tool. Each month he will touch on a topic of 
interest to graphics users, ranging from computer aided design to 
font generation, etc. His initial contribution, Installing NTSC and 
RGB Monitors will get you up and running in color graphics. 

Carol Chrzono^ski is a member of a strong and active Apple 
/// group in Denver whose "Apple /// Forever" philosophy is 
echoed in her club's policy of free advertising in their newsletter. In 
Denver is More than Dynasty, Carol reports briefly on the world of 
the ///, then offers three (no pun intended) mini-reviews of software 
from Colorado-based companies. 

As promised, we have brought back Art Schumer to conclude 
his review on the Quark Word Juggler family of products, entitled 
And in a Supporting Role. . . Naturally, the one review which 
caught our eye was "Typeface", a program to interface Word 
Juggler to a typesetting machine. We believe you will find them all 
of interest. 

Recently, we have seen a number of ///'s pass through the used market 
as the owner base (but obviously not the number of machines) 
continues to expand. If you are one of those recent purchasers, we 
have a couple of stories that may be of interest to you. 



Llona Cunningham, whose name is well known to regular 
readers of ON THREE, has proffered a treatise categorizing 
different types of applications and how to shop wisely for them. If 
you are looking for just the right tool to do a job, then Computer 
Applications was written with you in mind. 

For a newcomer, and some old-timers as well, it is often 
confusing, to say the least, to create a new system, reading in 
drivers, etc., just because you have acquired a new piece of 
software or a new peripheral. In the Beginning by Kevin 
FitzMaurice is a step-by-step guide to configuring your system, 
along with explanations of the logic behind SOS's unique design. (It 
sure makes sense to us.) 

A sore point with many computer users is the complete lack of 
standards for hardware and software printer control codes. Since 
Epson appeared on the market, their popularity itself has resulted in 
a de facto standard, but some printers just plain don't conform. 
Jerry Le^cki^s Confusing the Apple Dot Matrix Printer may go a 
long way toward resolving that problem with the DMP and the 
ImageWriter look-alike. Jerry's bit is a BASIC program that does all 
the work for you; select a few items from the menu to change fonts, 
etc., and throw away the printer manual (which is probably wrong, 
anyway). 

Neither last nor least is AppleWriter: A Eootnote. More than 
likely, AppleWriter /// is your word processor of choice. This paper 
by John LoMartire corrects some serious errors in the 
AppleWriter manual and the program itself. Basically, you are told 
that footnotes of 1024 characters are possible on one page, but not a 
word on how to generate them. In fact, it is not possible to approach 
anywhere near this figure, but after reading this, you will certainly 
be able to deal a great deal more with footnotes. John tells all. 

Hearts and Flowers 

Yes, St. Valentine will soon be with us; it is indeed that time of year. 
We hope our gifts above will be well received. As our cover 
indicates, we love our Apple ///. And what better occasion and 
better way to show it than with an ON THREE "I love my ///" T-shirt, 
sweat shirt or cap. With T-shirts at only $1 1 .95 and in a wide variety 
of colors, what a "cap" to the ON THREE quality line of hardware 
and software products. 

We recently mailed a circular describing a portion of our product 
line and detailing some of our newest, if you did not receive a copy, 
possibly because you have moved, please make sure we have your 
most recent address and drop us a note requesting a free copy. 
We'll be more than happy to ship one your way. 1 1 1 1 



ON THREE February, 1 BBS 



Notes from the Publisher: 

Blocli_Write 



bob consorfi 



As I sit down to write this column I cm 
working under o deadline. Vol soys I'm 
going to be dead unless I finish it. I never 
knew that I had hired such a slave driver! 
I'm sure everyone out there likes it though. 
We are now on a monthly publishing 
schedule! You have no idea of how good it 
feels to write those words. Over the past 
few years I have been spreading myself 
very thin trying to do everything. It's a joy to 
be able to have an issue of ON THREE 
printed each and every month. 

Enough of that for now. Some of you 
may be wondering just what my position in 
putting the magazine together is now that 
Vol is the editor. Well, over the past couple 
of months I've been pondering that same 
question. Basically I'm acting as support for 
Vol in his learning endeavors with the ///. I 
keep him fairly well stocked with your 
questions and my answers for the Three 
Questions section of the magazine. Other 
than that, I just keep an eye on things - 
making sure that you can look forward to 
the best the /// has to offer. 

With Vol as the full time editor, I'm free to 
help our head programmer, Rob Turner, 
create the state-of-the-art programs that 
everyone has been asking for. The ONTIME 
Desktop Manager is our latest project. By 
the time you receive this magazine, we will 
be shipping this fantastic tool. Everyone 
who has an Apple /// should own a copy. 
Ads for the Desktop Manager are else- 
where in this issue. By now you may have 
heard about the Desktop Manager. If not 
please read on. 

The ONTIME Desktop Manager will 
clear your desk! With a single keypress you 
now have available 1) A full feature 
Appointment Calendar, 2) A full feature 
Calculator, 3) A full feature Note Pad (rivals 
some word processors), 4) The ability to use 
the mouse from within any application 
program and much, much more! Just press 
a button and any of the Desktop Manager 
utilities will appear in a window on the 
screen. You can use the utilities to set 
appointments, figure some numbers, jot 
down a few notes and generally increase 
your productivity. I could go on for pages 



about the Desktop Manager (maybe next 
time Vol will let me!) Suffice to say that this 
product will revolutionize the way you use 
your Apple ///. 

How Fast Con We Go? 

Rob may get upset because I'm not really 
supposed to talk about it yet, but along the 
development path for the Desktop Manager 
we scrapped the Apple /// Pascal Assembler. 
The main reason was for its lack of speed. 
For some of the larger Desktop Manager 
Utilities, the Apple /// Pascal Assembler 
took over 30 minutes to assemble. What did 
we change to? Well, it's tentatively called 
the 'Rob & Bob Assembler', but the name 
may change. We designed it to be the 
fastest assembler ever! It's just a little bit 
faster than the Pascal Assembler, by about 
a factor of 120. The 400K of source code 
(the assembler itself) takes the Pascal 
Assembler about 30 minutes to do, while the 
Rob & Bob Assembler can do it in about 1 5 
secondsl 

As I write this column, the assembler does 
not support relocatable code, so you 
Business Basic Invokable module writers will 
have to wait a little. Adding the relocation 
information into the assembler will probably 
take another month or so. We do support 
almost the entire Apple TLA formats and 
with some expansions. If you are doing any 
serious developmental work on the ///, give 
Rob or myself a call and we'll keep you 
posted on its progress and let you know 
when it may be available . 

Two-Timing Chips For The Apple /// 

It's no big secret that Apple is preparing 
their replacement for the Apple //e. The //x 
as it has been called is presumed to use the 
new 16-Bit 65816 micro-processor chip. 
The standard 8-Bit 6502 variety is falling by 
the wayside. For those of you interested in 
such things, the new chips (65816 and 
65802) offer a variety of new instructions 
and modes. The new chip can directly 
access two bytes at a time (16 Bits) versus 
the 6502's single byte at a time. What this 
really means is a speed increase. 

"Big deal," you say? "It will only make 
me dump my /// quicker," you curse. 



Wrong! The 65802 is a direct replacement 
for the current 6502 in your Apple ///. We 
have already tested the new chips in the 
machine and they work just fine. Rob 
modified our .RAM ramdisk driver just 
slightly to use the expanded modes of the 
65802, and the darn thing operated over 
33% faster! None of your current programs 
will be able to take advantage of the extra 
speed capabilities of the new chip without 
major modifications, but ON THREE has 
some things planned. 

We have been trying to get Apple to 
release the source code to the Apple /// 
operating system (SOS) for some time now. 
If they ever do, we will modify it to use the 
new chip. Since most of the time your 
programs are working is spent inside the 
operating system, we feel that the speed-up 
will be significant. Hopefully Apple will 
agree and let us pursue this enhancement 
for all Apple ///'s. By the way, yes, our new 
assembler supports the new chip and its 
widely expanded instruction set. 

512K Memory Notes 

The ON THREE 512K Memory Board 
now works with all Apple /// software. The 
last hold-out was Word Juggler, but it too 
now supports the extra memory in your 
51 2K Apple ///'s. Special thanks go to Tim 
Gill, President of Quark, Inc. for taking the 
time out of his busy schedule to complete 
the upgrade. If you have a 51 2K Apple ///, 
contact Quark directly for information on 
upgrading your current disks to the latest 
version. 

All of our older memory board pur- 
chasers were recently mailed a set of the 
latest upgrade disks. These new disks 
contained the upgrade to /// E-Z Pieces 
that allow that program to use the full 
memory in their 51 2K Apple ///'s. We 
received a number of the packages back 
because people have moved, etc. If you 
have an ON THREE 51 2K Memory Board 
and have not received the update to /// E-Z 
Pieces that gives you a 410K-plus desktop, 
please contact ON THREE. 
Last Notes (For this time, that is!) 

P.S. Happy Valentine's Day! f ||f 



February. 1 9B6 ON THREE 



Connecting RGB and NTSC Monitors: 



Oraphically i§»peakmg 



m^lvin a. astraban^ pb*d. 



This is the first in a series of 
articles I will be writing on the 
subject of computer graphics and the 
Apple III . The Apple /// has some 
rather remarkable color and black- 
and-white graphics capabilities. In 
this series of articles I will delve into 
such subjects as: Computer Aided 
Design, specific business and artistic 
applications of Draw ON III (a new 
and powerful software graphics pack- 
age for the Apple III), the various 
Apple /// graphics modes, memory 
organization, hardware, projects, 
some powerful assembly language 
routines, Pascal and Business Basic 
graphics programming, character 
font generation, and so on. This 
initial article commences with add- 
ing color graphics capability to your 
Apple ///. 

Which Monitor 
Should You Purchase? 

I have noted numerous letters in 
this and other publications indicat- 
ing confusion about color monitors 
and the Apple /// computer. This was 
rather surprising to me, since the 
first thing I did when I purchased my 
computer a couple of years ago was 
hook up an NTSC composite monitor 
(the type an Apple ][ uses) so I could 
play the Apple ][ games in emulation 
mode. As a physicist and electronics 
hobbyist however, I suspected I was 
in a much better position to handle 
the problem than many other new 
Apple /// users. One of the main 
reasons I chose Apple /// was because 
it met the needs of my professional 
work, such as respectable word pro- 
cessing ability, graphics capability, 
the ability to handle large data 
arrays for physics and engineering 
problems, and by using the emulator, 
I could play Zork or Raster Blaster 
on weekends. The Apple /// provides 
all of the color information required 
for both NTSC composite video and 
RGB computer video via a 15-pin 



connector on the rear. In order to 
connect the NTSC signal, all you 
need is the correct plug. 

Out of curiosity, I recently made a 
brief survey of five southern California 
Apple dealers in Los Angeles and 
Orange Counties. I found one dealer 
with a more-or-less functioning color 
monitor (an incorrectly color balanced 
Taxan), one with an incorrectly 
connected monitor (an Amdek yield- 
ing only 8 of the 16 available colors), 
one with a correctly connected high 
resolution RGB monitor and two who 
had no color monitor connected, 
although every Apple ][ in the store 
had one. None of the sales people 
knew how to properly connect a color 
monitor, let alone anything about 
the rather incredible computing 
power or system design of the Apple ///. 
One dealer even had an RGB color 
monitor of the type which is directly 
compatible with the /// (and even 
was designed specifically for it), 
sitting in a box in a corner, for sale at 
a bargain price, since they had 
apparently forgotten what it was 
for. 

Before I discuss the actual connec- 
tion procedures, a brief discussion of 
the applicability of the various types 
of monitors is in order. If the only 
reason you need a color monitor is to 
play Apple ][ games (in emulation 
mode), you should purchase an 
NTSC composite monitor. Many 
inexpensive NTSC monitors use a 
picture tube similar to those found in 
conventional TV sets. The manufac- 
turers remove the tuner section, and 
in some cases, the audio section as 
well, and sell what remains for about 
the same price! Not a bad deal for 
them, but I doubt they sell enough to 
permit the same profit margin per 
unit as with conventional TV sets. 

Some monitors, however, seem to 
exhibit better frequency response 
than their TV set cousins. Frequency 
response in a monitor is a rating 



factor which is directly related to 
how 'sharp' a dot the monitor can 
make on the screen and how true its 
color is. Poor frequency response 
results in 'blurring' the dot by spread- 
ing it out over a larger area of the 
screen, resulting in lower overall 
intensity. Another factor which 
determines sharpness and color 
purity is the phosphor dot packing 
density (the number of red, green, 
and blue phosphor dots per unit 
area) on the screen itself. The better 
monitors use a special screen with 
more and smaller phosphor dots. 
This is important, since you might 
want to put a small blue dot at some 
location on the screen, but if the 
phosphor dots are too large, only red 
phosphor may be available at the 
desired location. 

In Apple ][ emulation mode, the 
only color signal the /// produces is 
via the NTSC output (when in emu- 
lation mode, the RGB circuit inter- 
pret the graphics memory in hi-res 
black and white for a reason which is 
probably hardware oriented). The 
NTSC composite is essentially the 
same quality signal that an Apple ][ 
produces, except for a small anomaly 
which occasionally causes some 
uncontrollable flickering of the left- 
most edge of some games. This is a 
fairly minor annoyance, and does not 
occur all of the time. The reason for 
this flickering is also apparently 
hardware oriented. 

The NTSC signal is also the same 
type as is used by a video cassette 
recorder (VCR), and in fact you can 
directly record the video output of 
the Apple ///. If you are short on cash, 
but have a VCR, you may connect 
the /// to the video-input jack on the 
VCR (they all have them for dubbing 
purposes), and play the games on 
your standard TV set, although the 
picture quality will be poorer than 
using a high quality monitor directly. 



ON THREE February, 1 3BB 



Several factors are responsible for 
this, the primary ones being the 
generally better frequency response 
of a monitor, and bypassing the 
necessity for a TV channel carrier. A 
good quality 13 inch NTSC compo- 
site monitor should cost between 
$250 and $350, while a top quality 
monitor can cost up to $800, depend- 
ing on screen size. 

If you would like to use the 
advanced color graphics and text 
capability of the /// in native mode, 
you may still use the same monitor 
with no change whatsoever, although 
the picture quality will be similar to 
that of an Apple ][ or other game type 
computer. One of the more delightful 
characteristics of the Apple /// is its 
impressive 16 color text (and graphics) 
capability, a decidedly under-used 
feature in all the software I have seen 
available to date. {ON THREE is 
doing something about that! ...ed.) 
Highly readable color text is a power- 
ful software tool for directing your 
attention to a location on a crowded 
screen and/or organizing data for 
easy correlation and recognition. In 
order to take advantage of this capa- 
bility, an RGB color monitor is 
absolutely essential. 

In an RGB monitor, the computer 
directly controls the red, green, and 
blue color guns of the video monitor, 
with no mixing and encoding of the 
color information into a composite 
signal. This results in character 
sharpness and color quality equiva- 
lence approaching that of your black 
& white or green monitor (such as the 
Apple monitor ///), depending on the 
quality of the monitor you choose. 
Even with the poorest RGB monitor I 
saw at a dealer (an Amdek), the 
picture was significantly better than 
that from the NTSC signal. You 
should get the highest resolution 
monitor you can afford, with a rated 
resolution in pixels of a minimum 
560 horizontal by 192 vertical. The 
greater the resolution, the more 
distant a dot will appear to be, and 
the truer its color will be. RGB color 
monitors for the Apple /// are avail- 
able priced between $400 and $1400, 
the most expensive capable of repro- 
ducing far more resolution than the 
signal the computer can output. 

The monitor I recommend for the 
Apple /// is the 13 inch Electrohome 



ECM 1302-2 (Electrohome USA 
Limited, 250 Wales Ave., Tonawanda, 
New York 14150) with a pixel resolu- 
tion of 580 by 235 (10 mhz bandwidth) . 
Electrohome is a well known Cana- 
dian manufacturer of home television 
sets and monitors used in medical 
imaging and other industrial appli- 
cations. The 1302-2 is actually 
assembled by JVC for Electrohome. 
It is pin-for-pin compatible with the 
Apple /// color video port and in- 
cludes built in color balancing for the 
Apple /// color set. Two years ago this 
monitor was about $800, it should 
now be available for about $450 (I 
dropped by the Electrohome booth at 
the last NCC conference here in 
Anaheim. They sent me product 
information indicating a suggested 
list price under $500). This monitor 
also has an NTSC video & sound 
adapter available for about $100 (I 
have one, and it works! ) which allows 
it to be used in both native /// and ][ 
emulation mode. Thus, for the cost of 
a top-of-the-line NTSC monitor, you 
can get the best of both worlds. To 
misquote a famous salesman ''You 
just have to know the territory!" 

Connecting an NTSC monitor 

Connecting a color monitor of 
either type to the Apple /// is actually 
a rather simple procedure if you 
know where to get the necessary 
information. A famous adage is quite 
applicable in this case; ''when all else 
fails, read the instructions." Buried 
in Appendix C, pages 132-135, of 
your Apple III Owner's Guide is most 
of the information you need. The 
problem appears to be that most 
people tend to lose interest in any 
non-fiction book after about page 3, 
let alone page 132. 

I will first describe connecting an 
NTSC monitor, the general idea 
being to add a socket similar to the 
one which you use to hook up your BAV 
monitor to the ///. On the back of the 
/// is a 15 -pin D-type connector 
(socket) which is the video port. Your 
major problem will be to find a 15-pin 
D connector (plug). Check your local 
electronics supply and surplus or the 
mail order houses that advertise in 
Byte magazine for instance. Some 
software houses also seem to carry 
these plugs and sockets on occasion. 
Try and find a plug which is fully 
populated with 15 pins if you don't 



know how to assemble the connector 
(specifically, avoid the ICO RALLY 
system unless you are familiar with 
assembling connectors.) A 15-pin D 
plug should cost about $5 with 
plastic shields. Your local Radio- 
Shack store should carry one-foot 
long (roughly) coax audio extension 
cables with a female socket on one 
end and a male plug on the other. 
This is the type of plug commonly 
found on the back of stereo receivers, 
cassette decks, and like the black 
and white video plug on the back of 
the Apple /// (which you use to 
connect your monitor ///). These 
plugs are also sometimes referred to 
as RCA plugs or occasionally as ring 
(the outer shield) and tip (the prong) . 
Use a wire stripper to cut off the 
male (pronged) end of the RCA cable 
and throw it away. With the wire 
which remains attached to the female 
socket (at the end where you cut off 
the male plug), carefully strip off the 
outermost insulation for a length of 
about one inch. Unbraid (a tack or 
pin is helpful in separating the wires) 
the braided shielding wires from the 
inner insulation as far as possible 
and gently twist them into a rope- 
like bundle. Strip the insulation 
from the inner wire for about Vs inch, 
and solder the center wire to pin 12 of 
the 15-pin D plug. Each pin is 
labeled with a tiny number embossed 
in the plastic casing around it. How- 
ever, you may need a magnifying 
glass to see it. Soldering will be easier 
if you gently clamp the plug prong 
side down in a vice, and melt a tiny 
bit of solder into the hole in each pin 
to which you are going to connect a 
wire. Then take the wire in one hand, 
reheat the pin with the other, and 
insert the wire, holding it steady 
until the solder cools. Solder the tip 
of the twisted shielding wires to pin 
13, being careful not to let the inner 
wire and shielding wires short out 
anywhere. A bit of heat shrinkable 
insulation on the braided wires prior 
to installation is a good idea. You can 
get heat shrink insulation at most 
electronics supply stores. Use the 
side of your soldering iron, a match, 
hair dryer, etc... to shrink the insula- 
tion. When working with electronic 
components, you should always use a 
low temperature soldering iron with 
a fine tip. Never use a soldering gun 



February, 1 9B6 ON THREE 



or you will melt or damage every- 
thing in sight. Put the plastic shields 
onto the plug (if not already there), 
and gently lock down the strain relief 
(if there is one) onto the coax cable 
where it exits the shield. Test the 
resistance between pins 12 and 13, 
and all the other pins with a multi- 
tester (if you have one) to verify no 
electrical shorts. 

You may now hook up most any 
NTSC monitor, VCR, TV with 
monitor capability, etc... by connect- 
ing them using the same kind of 
male-male coax cable that you use to 
connect your monitor /// to the BAV 
video socket. 

Connecting an RGB monitor 

If you have purchased an Apple /// 
compatible RGB monitor such as the 
Electrohome 1302-2, you may pur- 
chase a cable from the local distribu- 
tor, or build one yourself for about 
one third the cost. A true Apple /// 
compatible monitor will have in it 
somewhere the resistor network out- 
lined on page 134 of your owners 
guide. All you have to do is get some 
6-conductor wire (about 22-24 gauge) 
and connect the signals XRGBl (pin 
5), XRGB2 (pin 9), XRGB4 (pin 2), 
XRGB8 (pin 10), SYNCH (pin3), 
and SIGNAL GROUND (pin 13) to 
the similarly labeled pins on the 
monitor's connector. In the case of 
the Electrohome, the pin numbers 
are identical. This monitor requires a 
female 15-pin D socket at its end of 
the cable, and a 15-pin D plug at the 
Apple /// end. Shielded cable is not 
required for short runs of a few feet. I 
used regular multicolored ribbon 
cable. Use the same soldering tech- 
niques outlined in the NTSC hook- 
up section of this article. 

If you have an RGB monitor which 
is not designed as Apple /// compat- 
ible, you will need to build a resistor 
network in order to correctly repro- 
duce the Apple color set. The colors 
produced on the RGB screen are 
determined by the relative contribu- 
tion of the red, green, and blue guns 
at that point. These contributions 
are controllable from the digital 
outputs of the Apple /// via a resistor 
weighting network. The circuit to do 
this (page 134 of the owner's guide) is 
flawed. For technical types, the 
emitter follower buffers are missing 



from the input transistor network, 
resulting in the wrong voltage levels 
for a correct 'black' of 0.5 volts, and 
the resistor values are wrong. The 
Synch inputs to the network are also 
extraneous if your monitor has a 
negative synch input somewhere. A 
simpler and more versatile circuit is 
illustrated below in figure 1 . The five 
volts required by the transistors is 
provided by the Apple /// via pin 15 
(WARNING: Do not connect this pin 
to the RGB monitor). Connect the 
outputs labeled Red, Green, Blue, 
Synch, and Signal ground to the 
RGB monitor. 

By replacing the fixed value resistors 
of the diagram in the Apple Owners 
Guide with 5000 ohm 10-turn trim- 
ming potentiometers (about $1.50 
each), a highly versatile network is 
created which you may adjust for any 
color set you desire. This is useful for 
color balancing the screen, or in 



creating special colors for artistic 
and animation projects. 

The colors on an RGB monitor are 
produced entirely from this resistor 
network. All the Apple /// does is 
produce a four bit digital code at 
outputs XRGBl, XRGB2, XRGB4, 
and XRGB8. This is about a 2.5 volt 
signal when 'on', and about 0.5 volts 
when 'off. The relative contribution 
is determined by the value of the 
resistor between the digital output 
and the gun drive. The higher the 
resistance, the less the contribution. 
A simple bit table, as illustrated in 
figure 2, illustrates the interactive 
relationship. Table locations with 
ones present indicate a contribution 
from that output to the color number 
in question. Thus, color number 1 is 
entirely due to XRGBl, whereas 
color number 2 is due to both XRGBl 
and XRGB2. It should be obvious 
why black is defined as color number 
(Cont'd on page 12] 



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Figure 1 



ON THREE February, 1 9BB 



Technique: 



Transfering Foto Files to ProDOS 



finn jorgensen 



I use the Draw ON /// Graphics Tool to make illustra- 
tions for an upcoming technical book. This work is done in 
Mode 2 (560 B&W) and the results print nicely with 
Grafpak /// using an Epson FX-80. 

I plan to use the same illustrations in lectures, with a 
portable Apple //c hooked up to a video projection system, 
which would mean re-drawing everything, using Penguin 
or Beagle graphics programs. It occurred to me that 
perhaps the original Apple /// Fotofiles could be used. 

I therefore called the ON THREE office and was kindly 
referred to Dr. Melvin Astrahan, author of Draw ON ///. A 
series of phone calls ensued and the information provided 
by Dr. Astrahan proved most helpful in telling me what I 
need to do. Because this is an application that may be of 
use to other Apple /// users, I have detailed step-by-step 
instructions below to aid in converting Fotofiles to a form 
that ProDOS on an Apple ][ can handle. For the record, 
here are the steps: 

A. Load the picture into screen buffer #1. 

The Fotofile may be either B&W 560 or COL 140 
Note: Unless using COL 140 mode, skip to step 
B.I 

Fotofiles in COL 140 require additional steps since the 
bit patterns in the pixel bytes in the /// produce different 
colors when displayed on an Apple //c or //e. The colors 
must be changed in the COT table as shown below. For 
details, see the Draw ON /// manual, pages 54-56: 

A. 2 We will use open-apple-F with the cursor fully open 
(entire screen) to change colors. We can preserve 
all colors by placing the cursor in the black row and 
pressing the underscore ' ' or minus '-' key. 

A. 3 Now change colors in that row by first selecting a 
pen color number that represents the new byte. 
Place the cursor on the color number— in the last 
row (0)— that you are changing. Press **' to change 
the cell. 
The changes required are: 

old: 123456789 011 12131415 
new: 8 1 9 2nc 311nc12nc13 6 4 7nc 

A. 4 Go back to screen no. 1 (in the COL 140 mode) and 
place the cursor in the upper left corner of the 
screen. Press open-apple-C and open the cursor 
by moving it to the lower right corner. Press open- 
apple-C again. 
Now press open-apple-F and press return. 



B.I 



B.2 



C.I 
C.2 

C.3 



Set MODE to (B&W 280). The picture will look 
messy, but don't be concerned, it will later display 
correctly on the Apple //c and //e double hi-res. 
Save Fotofile as 

NAME.DPA (for later use with Penguin or:) 
NAME.AUX (for later use with Beagle.) 

Switch to screen buffer #2. 

Set MODE to (B&W 280). Again, the picture will 

look messy. 

Save Fotofile as 

NAME.DPM (for later use with Penguin, or:) 
NAME (for later use with Beagle.) 

Note: NAME is your choice of a new file name. You now 
have the two files required for the ][ series double hi-res 
picture, but they are still Fotofiles, which the graphics 
programs will have nothing to do with. They must 
therefore be altered to a file type that ProDOS can 
handle: type BINARY. A fast way to do this is to go to 
your //c or //e computer and boot the ProDOS Excerciser 
disk from Apple's Work-Bench with the ProDOS 
Technical Reference Manual: 

D.1 Select 04— Get file (using /disk.vol.name/NAME.DPA 

or NAME.AUX). 
D.2 SelectCS— Set file: Change second bit from $08 to 

$06. 

E.1 and E.2: Repeat for other half-file. 

Voila! — boot Penguin or Beagle double hi-res programs 
and load your picture. If you wish to transfer a //c or //e 
double hi-res picture to the ///, just reverse the entire 
procedure. 

Some may wish to use Broderbund's Dazzle-Draw, and 
since that program does not split the double hi-res file, we 
must therefore combine the two files as shown below, 
where .DD is added to the file name for Dazzle-Draw: 

F. For use with Dazzle-Draw: 

F.1 BLOAD NAME.DPA, A8192 [return] 
BLOAD NAME.DPM, A16384 [return] 
BSAVE NAME.DD, A8192, L16384 [return] 

G. The other way (to Penguin:) 

G.1 BLOAD NAME.DD, A8192 [return] 

BSAVE NAME.DPA, A8192, L8188 [return] 
BSAVE NAME.DPM, A16384, L8188 [return] 

G.2 To Beagle, use .AUX instead of .DPA; nothing 
instead of .DPM Uf] 



February, 1 3BG ON THREE 



The /// Lives in Colorado: 



Denver is More Than Dynasty 



carol ckrzanowski 



A lot of Apple /// user groups can 
often be heard proclaiming "Apple /// 
forever" or "let's keep the ///Alive!" 
And rightly so, for the Apple /// is 
truly a fine machine. However, at 
first these proclamations may sound 
impossible. After all, large com- 
panies like Visicorp are no longer 
supporting the ///. And certainly 
they are no longer developing new 
software for it. But did you ever stop 
to think how many of the smaller 
software and hardware houses are 
still developing for and on the ///? 
Probably not. Because they do not 
have the capital to advertise like the 
Visicorp's of the world, you don't 
always hear about the smaller firms 
or their products. You won't see their 
wares in computer stores either, 
since today no one there has even 
heard of the ///. Yet their products 
may be equally as good, if not 
superior to those produced by the 
large corporations. 

Unlike the large corporations, 
these smaller companies can more 
easily be encouraged to develop new 
products for the ///. They do not 
require as great a volume of sales to 
succeed. But even these companies 
will soon stop producing new hard- 
ware and software if no one is buying 
their products. 

But, you ask, how can you buy 
anything from these companies if 
you don't know what is available? 
This is a problem. However, it can be 
overcome easily enough, simply by 
working together and communicat- 
ing with one another about any 
products we have found to be of 
sufficiently high caliber. It is impor- 
tant for all users of the /// to make 
known to other users in their local 
user group, and to publications like 
ON THREE, information they have 
obtained about lesser known, but 
excellent, products. This simple 
effort could encourage these smaller 



firms to develop additional new 
products and to continue support of 
their existing base of Apple /// 
offerings. 

Apple /// users can only benefit 
from this effort. A greater variety of 
products will mean that our machines 
will be of greater use to us. And, if 
companies continue to develop new 
products for the ///, our fine machines 
will, in a sense, continue to live on. 

In Denver, the Colorado APPLE 
ThREE User Group is very active 
and dedicated to supporting the ///. 
We feel so strongly about the need to 
disseminate Apple /// information 
that we publish advertising in our 
monthly newsletter free of charge to 
developers of quality products. 

• . • uie publish Free 
QclvertisinQ, 

Denver is occasionally referred to 
as a second Silicon Valley because of 
the number of software and hard- 
ware houses located here, such as 
Quark. Being located in Denver 
provides our club members with the 
opportunity to learn about products 
developed by Denver-based comp- 
anies that may not be widely publi- 
cized. For this reason, many of our 
club members are using software 
that others may not have heard 
about. Because our club members 
have been pleased with these pro- 
ducts, I'd like to pass on some 
information about them and also 
share some pretty solid Denver- 
based rumors. 

Post Master by compuCRAFT 

Post Master is more than a mailing 
list system. It is a database manage- 
ment system whose database contains 
information on or about people and/ 
or companies. It can also be used as a 
telemarketing system. Post Master is 



so sophisticated that it requires 256K 
to run, a second disk drive or hard 
disk, and occupies two full disks. For 
this reason, it takes a little while to 
boot, but once booted, is really fast! 
We are using Post Master to main- 
tain our own club's mailing list. 
Before acquiring Post Master, we 
used Mail List Manager and have 
found Post Master to be a significant 
improvement over Mail List Manager. 
Not only will it work with a hard disk 
but Post Master will also run under 
Catalyst. Designed to work quickly 
with large mailing lists, Post Master 
can handle 32,000 records. One 
individual uses Post Master to main- 
tain a mailing list of over 16,000 
names and addresses. Before getting 
Post Master, he used Versa Form to 
maintain his list and it took him days 
to sort and print his list. With Post 
Master, it now takes a few hours. 
Besides being a lot faster than Mail 
List Manager, Post Master also has 
more user coding flexibility and some 
pretty sophisticated features. 

Post Master uios designed 
for large lists. 

Because Post Master was designed 
for large lists, compuCRAFT included 
a number of professional mailing list 
features: 
1. Minimized keystrokes: 

a. Automatic Capitalization — 
When inputing data. Post 
Master will automatically capi- 
talize the first letter of any 
proper name or word. Hitting 
the shift key to capitalize a 
word can slow you down and 
cause you to be more prone to 
data entry errors. With a heavy 
volume of input, this feature 
can really save time. Even with 
a small data volume, it is a fun 
feature. It almost seems like 
magic. 



ON THREE February, 1 986 



b. Default Values — A really neat 
feature is Post Master's ability 
to use default values. For 
example, if you are inputing a 
batch of records that have 

Englewood CO addresses, you 
can set Englewood CO as a 
default value. Then you don't 
need to retype the same key- 
strokes over and over for each 
record. Moreover, you can over- 
ride the default if you encounter 
an exception. So Post Master is 
flexible about the defaults. 

c. Partial key searches — You can 
locate data in the data base by 
entering only a partial key. It 
doesn't have to find an identi- 
cal match. Instead, it will find 
the first record in the database 
that matches on the partial 
key. 

2. Sorts Without Sorting— Unlike 
Mail List Manager, Post Master 
can provide the data in several 
different sort orders without the 
user waiting for sorting to take 
place. Post Master doesn't sort 
because it indexes the database. 
You therefore get your data just as 
fast in any of the following orders: 
Name, Company, or Zipcode. 

3. Word Processor Interfacing — Post 
Master can produce address files 
for Word Juggler, Apple Writer /// 
or /// E-Z Pieces. The nice thing 
here is that Post Master can be 
used in conjunction with your 
word processor to write personal- 
ized form letters, yet you don't 
need to keep a separate mailing 
list for your word processor. 

4. Extensive Data Base Selection 
Capabilities — Post Master's selec- 
tion capabilities are pretty sophis- 
ticated and available to any of 
Post Master's other features like 
report generation, automatic call- 
ing, copying or purging of mailing 
list entries, word processor inter- 
facing, etc. The selection options 
are: 

a. Contains: The contains option 
allows you to find all records 
^containing' a particular char- 
acter or string of values any- 
where in any of the fields. This 
is a really useful feature, espe- 
cially when used against the 
free-form comments fields. 



of values. Post Master can do 
this as well. 
c. 'And' and 'Or' Conditions: Post 
Master will allow you to build a 
large combination of 'And' and 
'Or' conditions that must be 
met before data will be selected. 
The way Post Master guides 
you through setting up these 
conditions is unique. You don't 
need to do a lot of head scratch- 
ing to decide whether you need 
to do an 'And' or an 'Or' test to 
achieve the desired result. 
Achieving a 'not equal' test with 
Post Master has to be done with 
the 'range' condition which is a 
little more difficult than just say- 
ing 'not equal' but this hasn't been 
a serious inconvenience. 

5. Automatic Calling — Post Master 
will dial all or selected names in 
your mailing list and allow you to 
talk with these individuals and 
record the results of your conver- 
sation. You don't have to select 
one name at a time either. You can 
specify some selection criteria, 
such as a range of zipcodes, and 
Post Master will dial all entries in 
automatic succession that meet 
this criteria. You can still talk to 
each individual called, but when 
your conversation ends. Post 
Master automatically goes on to 
the next record. What is nice too, 
is that Post Master keeps track of 
those individuals you were unable 
to reach, either because the line 
was busy or because they weren't 
home. Later, if you like, it will 
automatically redial all of the 
names you couldn't reach the first 
time. It can handle up to three 
phone numbers per name. 

6. Sophisticated Duplicate Checking 
and Purging — if need be. Post 
Master will allow you to enter 
duplicates, or will check for dupli- 
cates as you enter data. It is the 
user's option. If you allow^ dupli- 
cates. Post Master will help you 
purge them later, if desired. The 
user can let Post Master automa- 
tically purge the duplicates or just 
have it identify the duplicates 
while the user controls the purging. 
It is also easy to purge all records 
which meet a certain set of selec- 
tion criteria established by the 



user. For example, you may want 
to remove records from your club's 
membership list of all members 
who didn't renew their member- 
ship. As a safety feature, you can 
optionally transfer these records 
to another mailing list. If an error 
was made, you can re-merge back 
into the original mailing list. 
7. Reports — Again, the selection 
feature of Post Master can be used 
in generating any of the reports or 
labels, as well. 

a. Labels: All or a selected subset 
of your mailing list can be used 
to create mailing labels. These 
labels can be printed any size 
from one to nine across in 
Cheshire or pressure sensitive 
format. These labels can be 
printed in the order selected by 
the user including zipcode order. 
Printing the labels in zipcode 
order, along with Post Master's 
ability to handle the new zip -1-4 
format, can be used to take 
advantage of better postal rates 
for bulk mail. 

b. Zipcode Report: Using this 
report, the selected records can 
be summarized, by zipcode. In 
this way the user can provide 
the post office with a count of 
mail by zip and thus save on 
postage through special large 
volume rates. 

c. Telephone Directory: Only the 

name, company and telephone 
numbers are printed on this 
report. 

d. Complete List: All information 
in the database, including all 
notes, comments, etc. can be 
printed with this report. This 
list is printed in a linear format 
which is nice for verifying your 
input. 

e. Audit feature: At the end of, or 
during each input session, if 
you so choose. Post Master will 
display on the screen the number 
of entries you added, changed 
and deleted from your mailing 
list. The uses for this feature 
might be to ensure that you 
didn't skip a record or delete 
one record too many. For a 
mailing list business, it could 
also be used in determining a 
customer's billing. 



10 



February. 1 BBS ON THREE 



8. Utilities — A real convenience is 
Post Masters ability to perform a 
number of SOS type utilities. 
These are: 

a. Format a volume 

b. Rename a mailing list 

c. List directory: This feature is 
not only a menu item by itself, 
but can be accessed any time a 
file name is requested by Post 
Master by simply pressing '?'. 

d. Copy all or selected portions of 
the mailing list to another new 
or existing mailing list 

e. Erase the contents of a file 

f. Delete a file 

g. Set pathname prefix: As in the 
SOS utilities, this feature allows 
you to set a default device or 
prefix. However, it can easily 
be overidden if necessary. 

h. Automatic setup for the proper 
printer driver needed. This 
allows you to switch drivers 
mid-stream. 
As far as ease of use is concerned, 
although Post Master comes with a 
56-page instruction manual, its use 
is pretty obvious without ever read- 
ing it. Post Master is menu driven 
and has some pretty sophisticated, 
multi-level help screens. That is, the 
second level of help screen gives more 
detail than the first on a given 
topic. 

• • • it appears you can use 
it For almost anvthing • • • 

In their documentation, compu- 
CRAFT provides some examples of 
how Post Master can be used. Besides 
the obvious uses, some of the more 
unusual examples include route 
planning, church membership infor- 
mation, telemarketing or mass call- 
ing, birthday or anniversary reminder, 
club membership or subscription 
renewal notices, and Christmas card 
lists. However, it appears that you 
can use it for about anything involv- 
ing names, addresses and phone 
numbers as long as you don't need 
more than two lines of additional 
free-form user coded information. 
This has been plenty for us. The Post 
Master documentation also includes 
some examples of coding techniques 

to make optimum use of these fields 



so most users should find this a 
workable size, I would think. 

A while back, a representative 
from compuCRAFT demonstrated 
Post Master at one of our monthly 
club meetings where we learned some 
interesting information about compu- 
CRAFT and Post Master that I don't 
think you will find written anywhere. 
For example, compuCRAFT was 
considering selling Post Master as a 
vertical market product to small 
mailing list houses. As a vertical 
market product. Post Master was 
valued at $800 by an outside consul- 
tant. But, since they can no longer 
purchase ///'s, compuCRAFT decided 
to market Post Master to the general 
market for $200. They are also plan- 
ning to convert Post Master to run on 
the Macintosh some time this year. 

Besides being in the software 
development business, compuCRAFT 
is in the mailing list maintenance 
business and uses Post Master on 
the /// to maintain extremely large 
lists for other companies. This in 
itself should say something about the 
quality of their product. The pro- 
grammer at compuCRAFT that wrote 
most of Post Master is Terri Wiles. 
Some of you may have seen her name 
in ON THREE magazine. Terri has 
been programming for many years 
and is on Bob Consorti's Hot Line 
calling list for Pascal questions. 

VFEDIT by compuCRAFT 

One of the drawbacks of Versa 
Form is that, once your data base is 
set up and all of your data has been 
input, the only way to change infor- 
mation in the database is one field at 
a time. With a lot of records on file, 
mass changes can be very time con- 
suming. VFEDIT was designed to 
simplify and shorten the amount of 
time needed to make mass changes 
to a Versa Form database. 

VFEDIT is another compuCRAFT 
software package that has been out 
for at least two years. As its name 
implies, it is an editor designed to 
perform global edits on Versa Form 
data. For example, one large Denver 
electronics parts manufacturer, 
Hathaway Corp., uses Versa Form to 
keep their parts price list. Periodically 
they may have an across-the-board 
price increase — say 10%. They use 
compuCRAFT's VFEDIT package 



to apply this 10% increase to the 
prices in their price list. VFEDIT 
will also change all records having a 
specified value to some new value. 
For example, it will find all records 
containing, *'John" in the name 
field, and globally change all of these 
records to whatever new value is 
specified, like "Joe". VFEDIT will 
also rearrange data in the Versa Form 
database. 

There may also be some additional 
global edit features that I am not 
aware of since I have not personally 
used VFEDIT. However, a couple of 
our club members have been using it 
for some time now and have found it 
to be a nice compliment to Versa 
Form. The price for this package is 
$79.95. 

For more information on either of 
these packages, contact compuCRAFT 
at 303-850-7472 or write them at 
P.O.Box 3155, Englewood, CO 80155. 

Directory Labeler /// by Sourceware 

Directory Labeler /// is another 
product that has been on the market 
for a couple of years. Jeff Anderson, 
the programmer at Sourceware who 
wrote this diskette labeling utility is 
a real perfectionist and his program 
shows it. 

Directory Labeler /// offers a conven- 
ient way to document the directory 
contents of a program or data disk- 
ette on peel-off labels. These labels 
can then be put onto the diskette. 
This eliminates any confusion about 
what is really on the disk because all 
files, as well as volume name, are 
listed on the label. If you are like me, 
before getting Directory Labeler ///, I 
would label my disks in pen or pencil 
with the volume name and maybe a 
note to myself about the contents, 
but I never listed all of the files. 
Later, when I wanted to go back and 
use the disk, I was often unsure if I 
had the right disk and certainly 
didn't know the name of the file I 
wanted on that disk. So this is a real 
organizing tool. It may seem time 
consuming to do, but you will find 
that having well labeled disks can 
save you a lot of time later. It also 
keeps the disks looking neat. If you 
prefer. Directory Labeler /// will 
print letter sized listings of the direc- 
tory that can be filed and referenced 
later. 



ON THREE February, 1 986 



1 1 



Some of this program's features 
are: 

1. Listing the Directory to the 
Screen — In much the same fashion 
as the SOS utiUties, this option 
allows you to see the contents of 
the diskette prior to printing the 
label or the hard-copy listing. 

2. Print Standard directory Labels — 
Directory Labeler /// will allow 
you to print from 1 to 99 peel-off 
labels with this option. These 
labels contain the following infor- 
mation: 

a. Any Title You Wish, 

b. Current Date — If you have a 
built-in clock, Directory Labeler 
/// will determine the date 
automatically for you. Other- 
wise, you will be prompted for 
the date. 

c. SOS Volume Name. 

d. The Names of All Files on the 
Diskette — A maximum of 24 
files can be printed on one 
label. If more files are on the 
diskette, they will be printed on 
a second label. You can also 
optionally exclude from the label 
or listing, any standard SOS 
files, such as the SOS.INTERP, 
SOS.DRIVER, SOS.KERNEL, 
etc. 

3. Custom Labels — Directory Labeler 
///will allow you to print, from 1 to 
99 custom labels which contain 
the following information: 

a. a title line, centered at the top 
of the label, 

b. up to five additional lines of 
any free-form information you 
choose. The five lines of added 
information will print exactly 
as they appear on the screen 
when you input the information. 

4. Directory Listing — This option 
provides a hard copy listing of the 
contents of a diskette. The listing 
includes whatever title you input, 
the date, SOS volume name, and 
all of the files on the directory as 
well as a count of the number of 
files listed. 

Directory Labeler /// works nicely 
on a 128K Apple ///. It can work with 
a hard drive, such as the ProFile, if 
desired. To print 'Standard Labels', 
you must have one of the following 
printers: Epson MX80/100 (or com- 
patible), Apple Dot Matrix Printer 
(or compatible), or Imagewriter. 



'Custom Labels' can be printed on 
any properly configured printer. 
Labels that are one-up, and 1-7/16'' 
by 4" are required for this program 
and a set of 20 labels are included in 
the package so you can begin using 
the program immediately. By the 
way, these labels are easy to find. 
Most stationery supply stores as well 
as computer stores carry this size. 

Another neat feature of Directory 
Labeler /// is that it is written in 
BASIC. This allows the user to 
modify the program, if desired. 

For more information on Directory 
Labeler ///, call Sourceware at 303- 
979-3876 or write them at 6899 South 
Yukon Ct., Littleton, CO 80123. 



RUMORS 

Word Juggler Printer Filters 

PI WARE, another Denver-based 
company, is developing some Word 
Juggler Printer Filters for the ///. The 
purpose of these filters will be to 
change print styles in the middle of a 
line. This is particularly useful with 
daisy wheel type printers. With this 
filter, you will be able to print your 
document until Word Juggler encoun- 
ters an instruction to stop printing. 
You can then change the daisywheel 
on your printer and resume printing. 
Printing will then continue until 
another stop command is found. 
Printing will once again stop, allow- 
ing you to put the original, or again 
some other daisywheel in your 
printer, etc. It sounds like a neat 
idea! For more information, you can 
write PI WARE at P.O. Box 36328, 
Denver, CO 80236 or call them at 
303-972-4167. 

Pascal Subroutines 

Soon to be available, from compu- 
CRAFT is a set of Pascal subroutines 
that are supposed to make the more 
tedious and boring parts of working 
with Pascal easier. For more infor- 
mation, write compuCRAFT at P.O. 
Box 3155, Englewood, CO 80155. 

As you can see, Colorado is still 
very active with the ///. I would 
assume that other parts of the 
country are equally active in their 
support of the ///. After all, one 
statistic shows that Apple /// users 



are the most satisfied group of 
computer users. For this reason, it 
would be a shame to give in and let 
our machines die. Let's support the 
small developers! Let's keep the /// 
alive! rnj 

Graphically Speaking 
(from page "7] 

0, since color has no contributing 
outputs. From this table, you can see 
that reducing the resistance between 
the red drive and XRGBl will add 
more red to all odd numbered colors 
and remove red from all even num- 
bered colors. Adding resistance be- 
tween XRGB8 and the green drive, 
will reduce the amount of green in 
colors numbered greater than 7, and 
increase the green contribution to 
colors numbered less than 8. You can 
play with the resistance values by 
adjusting the trimmers in figure 1 to 
create the Apple designated set, or 
any other set you might like. This 
circuit should cost about $20 to 
build. QJJ 



Color I 





n tm Ell IBl 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


I 


8 


8 


8 


1 


2 


8 


8 


1 


8 


1 

V 


8 


8 






4 


8 


1 


8 


8 


5 


8 


1 


8 


1 


€ 


8 


1 




8 


7 


8 


1 




1 


8 




8 


8 


8 


S 




8 


8 




li 




8 




8 


11 


j 
i 


8 






12 




1 


8 


8 


13 




1 


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15 




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Figure 2 



12 



February. 1 9BB ON THREE 



Review ON: Quark Products: 



And In a Supporting Role . . . 



arthur a schumer 



The following review covers four 
Quark, Inc. programs, created by 
them to supplement and support 
their well-known and capable Word 
Juggler word processor which was 
fully reviewed in the last issue of ON 
THREE, You should refer to that 
issue for more information on Word 
Juggler itself. 

Lexicheck: 

The Lexicheck spelling checker 
program, like Word Juggler, is written 
in assembly language. The package 
includes a supplement that will fit in 
your Word Juggler manual and a 
master disk that is copy able. It 
comes from Quark complete with a 
50,000 word dictionary that has been 
specially compressed to fit in a 195 
block disk file. A dictionary of legal 
terms is also available. 

The user con create • • . 
auxiliary dictionaries • . . 

The user has the capability to 
create as many auxiliary dictionaries 
as desired to supplement the main 
dictionary. This is especially nice as 
you can create dictionaries for a 
specific purpose (I created one speci- 
fically for this article!) 

Lexicheck is called from within 
Word Juggler by touching the seven 
(7) key on the numeric keypad in 
conjunction with the 'closed apple' 
key. The program is brought in from 
the storage device and a menu with 
the following options is presented: 

1) Select Auxiliary Dictionary. 

2) Change Display Order. 

3) Toggle One Letter Word Ignore. 

The first option allows you to 
specify the path name of any auxiliary 
dictionary that you wish to use. The 



second one is to have Lexicheck 
display the misspelled words in either 
the order that they are found in the 
document or in alphabetical order. 
The third option toggles Lexicheck 
to check the spelling of one letter 
words or not. 

As it displays on the bottom of the 
screen, just press the return key to 
begin checking! Lexicheck is a very 
fast checker and will process your 
document at the rate of about 10,000 
words per minute (13,000 wpm if a 
hard disk is used.) 

• . • you may speed up 
processing by turning off 
the video 

An important note is in order here. 
With just about any program that 
runs on the Apple ///, you may speed 
up the processing by turning off the 
video refresh. This is accomplished 
by touching the control key and the 
five (5) key on the numeric keypad. 
By turning off the video screen, 
Lexicheck will speed up its process- 
ing by 10% to 20%. 

After the spelling check is complete, 
Lexicheck will display the number of 
words in your document, the number 
of unique words it found and the 
number of words that it thinks are 
misspelled. 

If misspelled words are found, 
Lexicheck will display the words one 
at a time in the status area on the top 
half of the video screen and on the 
bottom will be the word as it is first 
used in context. You may then 
choose one of the following options: 



Return 
Space 
Shift Space 



— Guess word 
— Replace word 
—Skip Word 
—Add Word to 
Dictionary 



If you press the return key, Lexi- 
check will prompt you to type in the 
new spelling and will subsequently 
correct the spelling throughout your 
document. Please note that it will 
treat variations of words as different 
words (e.g. word, words, wording are 
all different.) 

When you are replacing a word 
that occurs more than once through 
you document and if it is capital- 
ized differently, Lexicheck will 
prompt you to spell each occurrence 
separately. 

By pressing the '?' key, you can 
have Lexicheck find words with 
similar spelling and display them at 
the top of the screen, this makes it 
very easy to correct any minor 
spelling errors. 



• . . you can display words 
ujith similar spelling. 



One of the most useful functions 
which is available while you are 
entering text into your document is 
Word Guess Plus. This is a feature 
that allows you to check the spelling 
of the word that you have just typed 
into your document. Word Guess 
Plus is called from within Word 
Juggler by touching the eight (8) key 
on the numeric keypad in conjunc- 
tion with the ^closed apple' key. A list 
of similar words is presented to you 
and you then have the option of 
selecting one of them to replace your 
word or just exiting back to the word 
processor. This feature saves a lot of 
time looking up words in a dictionary. 
If you are like me, you sometimes 
*blank-out' when spelling simple 
words. This is where Word Guess 
Plus can be a godsend! 



ON THREE February. 1 9BB 



13 



Summation 
I like the way that Lexicheck 
interfaces with Word Juggler and its 
speed in checking documents. I 
created an auxiliary dictionary for 
use with this review and found that 
there were only 81 words that were 
not recognized. Not too bad for a 
document that had some technical 
terms in it. After I manually checked 
the unrecognized words for spelling, I 
created a dictionary and will use it 
for my next article. For your informa- 
tion, this article is 7001 words in 
length with 1227 unique words and 
was checked for spelling in 37.6 
seconds (with the screen turned off) . 

Lexicheck is occurote and 
fast checker. 

All in all, Lexicheck is an accurate 
and very fast spelling checker. With 
its capability to create and use 
auxiliary dictionaries, as well as 
guess at words for you, it makes a fine 
addition to Word Juggler. 

Mail List Manager Support: 

The Mail List Manager Interface 
is a nice addition to the Word Juggler 
support programs. With it. Word 
Juggler can directly access data that 
you have stored using Apple's Mail 
List Manager without first having to 
put it into an intermediate form. 

The package comes with a supple- 
ment that is inserted into the Word 
Juggler manual and one copyable 
master disk. The instructions for 
using the Mail List Manager Inter- 
face program are sparse, but com- 
plete. It is a simple but powerful 
program that can make life much 
easier for you if you are currently 
using Apple's Mail List Manager. 

The first thing you should do is to 
transfer the appropriate files from 
the Mail List Manager Interface 
diskette to the Word Juggler diskette. 
After doing so, you are ready to use 
the program. 

The program operates just like the 
Data File Merge system on the Word 
Juggler diskette, in that you first 
have to create a form letter or mail- 
ing label format and then call in the 
auxiliary program to take over the 
processing of the document. The 



combination of touching the ^closed 
apple' key along with the zero (0) key 
on the numeric keypad will bring in 
the program from the disk and 
present you with a prompt for the 
storage medium that contains the 
Mail List Manager data files. 

Immediately, the Mail List Manager 
Interface program takes over and 
starts printing your document. 
Through the use of conditional state- 
ments and variables in your docu- 
ment you may select which records in 
your data file you desire to use. While 
your document is being printed, you 
are kept informed of the progress 
that is being made through your data 
file and the current information that 
is being supplied to the variables in 
your document. A sample screen is 
supplied here to illustrate this 
feature: 



Mail List Manager Interface Version 1.0 
Mail list: File Name 
# of Records: Number 
Reeorif #1 

[ Name 

[ Company 

[ Address 

[ City, State, Zip 

[ Line 5 

[ Line 8 
Phone [ Phone Number 

Label Code [ Code 

Copyright 1982 Quark incorporated 



Like the Data File Merge command, 
you may select only the records that 
you want to use by inserting the 
appropriate conditional statements 
in your document with Word Juggler. 



[the] interface progom 
expands the power of 
lUord Juggler. 



Summation 
The Mail List Manager Interface 
program expands the power of Word 
Juggler to allow it access to data 
structures that otherwise would have 
to be output to an ASCII file before 
being usable to the system. The 
program and manual are fairly com- 
plete and do their job very nicely. 



Typeface: 

Typeface is another accessory 
program to be used within Word 
Juggler that allows you to transmit 
your document to typesetting equip- 
ment. The manual that accompanies 
this program is also to be inserted 
into the Word Juggler manual and 
the package comes with one copyable 
diskette. 

The command files on this diskette 
are to be transferred to the Word 
Juggler diskette to allow them to be 
accessed from within Word Juggler. 

Typeface has a 
rudimentary terminal 
program. 

In transmitting your document 
you have three choices. You may use 
a direct link between the Apple /// 
and the typesetting equipment, you 
may place the formatted document 
in a disk file or you may use a 
modem. Typeface has a rudimentary 
terminal program built in to allow 
you to transmit your document or 
you may simply store it as a TEXT 
file and send it later using another 
communications program. 

• • . the typesetting 
company uiill format 
output their way. 

Since the typesetting company 
will want to format the output their 
way. Typeface will ignore several of 
the built-in commands that Word 
Juggler normally handles. These 
commands are: 



Left Margin 
Width 
Top Margin 
Page Length 
Length 
New Page 
Need 



Text 

10 Pitch 

12 Pitch 

15 Pitch 

Pause 

Printer Control 

Indent 



Typeface will transmit informa- 
tion about the line spacing, character 
font, and paragraph format (ragged 
right, ragged left, center or justified) 
at the beginning of the paragraph. 
The sequences of characters sent by 
Typeface to indicate these commands 
are completely user definable. 



1^ 



February. 1 3BB ON THREE 



Quark supplies a program written 
in BASIC that prompts you for the 
information needed to communicate 
with a typesetter. After running this 
program and entering the proper 
character sequences, a file of the 
information is written to disk and 
subsequently used by Typeface. If 
you are using a modem or a direct 
link, you should also transfer the 
SOS RS-232 driver (supplied with 
your Apple ///) to the Word Juggler 
diskette at this time. 

This program is not for the faint of 
heart as you must be knowledgeable 
about the type of typesetting equip- 
ment that you are transmitting to 
and what character codes that it will 
respond to. The manual completely 
describes how to accomplish this and 
will take you step by step through the 
configuration program. In addition, 
there are several example files on the 
Typeface diskette that you should 
examine to familiarize yourself with 
the concepts being presented. 

Once you have configured Typeface 
to 'talk' with the typesetting equip- 
ment, the rest is easy! 

Instead of using the normal com- 
mand sequence to insert formatting 
information into your document, you 
must now use the comment command 
to enter them. This will not affect the 
output of the document should you 
decide to print it out, but will still 
allow Typeface to recognize your 
typesetting commands. 

Typeface is called from within 
Word Juggler by a combination of 
touching the 'closed apple' key and 
the nine (9) key (on the keypad). You 
are immediately presented with the 
following menu choices: 

1) Check — Checks the document 

in memory for improper 
commands. 

2) Send — Used for sending the 

document in memory over 
the RS-232 port. The key- 
board may be used as a 
terminal prior to trans- 
mission. 

3) Write — Writes the document in 

memory to a TEXT file. 

The first option scans your docu- 
ment in memory for illegal Typeface 
commands. If it finds one, it will 
notify you and place you in text mode 
at the place where the error occurred. 



The second option is the one that 
you use to communicate with your 
typesetter and send your document. 
You must have the RS-232 port 
connected to a modem or directly to 
the typesetter. Upon your selection 
of this option, you are placed into 
terminal mode and have some simple 
choices to make for handshaking, 
baud rate, parity, etc. Just like Word 
Juggler, all the commands are lo- 
cated on the numeric keypad and are 
easy to remember. While acknow- 
ledged as not a 'real' communications 
program, it's nice that Typeface has 
this capability in case you need it. 

The third option will format your 
document and store it as a TEXT 
file. This allows you to either send 
your disk directly to your typesetter 
(providing they have and Apple /// or 
Apple ][ with ProDOS), or to utilize 
another communications program to 
transmit at a later time. 

• • • the only • • • program 

• • • to communicate directly 
luith a typesetter. 

Summation 
This is the only commercial program 
for the Apple /// that allows you to 
communicate directly with a type- 
setter. Bypassing the tedious re-typing 
of a document into a tvpesetter is a 
logical expansion of the capabilities 
of any word processing program and 
Typeface handles this task beautifully. 

Discourse: 

With the recent popularity of 
printer buffers, it's nice to know that 
Quark hasn't left its Word Juggler 
customers defenseless! Discourse is a 
transparent software printer spooler. 
It also comes with an insert for your 
Word Juggler manual and one copy- 
able disk. 

Installation is a bit tricky but the 
instructions in the manual are very 
complete and you should have no 
trouble setting it up. It will work with 
any printer as long as it uses the 
Quark serial driver or the Quark 
parallel driver. At this time, it will 
not work if you have your printer 
configured to work with the Apple /// 
RS-232 driver. 

It functions like the hardware 



buffers by filling a buffer with the 
text that you want to print and then 
allowing you to work on something 
else while your printer is tied up. The 
only difference lies in the fact that 
Discourse spools your printer output 
to a disk file instead of to a hardware 
device. This disk file can be located 
on a hard or floppy disk. During the 
installation of Discourse, you will 
have to create a subdirectory called 
SPOOL for the storage of the files 
that are in the queue (i.e., waiting to 
be printed.) 

A SOS driver (called .SPOOL) is 
also installed and will be substituted 
for your normal printer driver. What- 
ever program you are using, you 
usually have the option of informing 
the system where to send printed 
output. With Discourse, you will 
output to .SPOOL rather than 
.PRINTER or .SILENTYPE. This 
new driver will take the output that 
you would normally send directly to 
your printer and save it to a tempo- 
rary file on your storage medium. 

Aside from re-directing your out- 
put, there is nothing more that the 
basic user will be required to do. 
Discourse takes over and through the 
use of interrupts will spool your 
document from the storage medium 
to the printer in the ^background' 
while you are able to do something 
else in the 'foreground'. 

The advanced user may elect to 
utilize several options that include 
appending a form feed command 
after every file in the queue or 
whether manual or automatic print- 
ing is selected. With manual selec- 
tion, the spooler will halt after each 
file and need to be restarted, while 
automatic does not require restarting. 

Some of the added features are the 
ability to queue up to 14 files to be 
printed. During the print process, 
you may edit the queue and delete 
files or change their sequence of 
printing. 

Summation 
Discourse is an excellent addition 
to the product line from Quark and 
anyone who has a lot of printer 
output should give this utility some 
thought when comptemplating the 
purchase of a printer buffer. My only 
complaint is the lack of support for 
users who have to use the RS-232 
driver with their printer. £777 



ON THREE February, 1 3BB 



15 



Look UUhot uue Found: 



Three New Products 



Automatic Test Authoring for Apple /// 

Resource Software Internetional recently announced that its popular 
Automatic Test Authoring System has successfully completed testing and is 
now being shipped to users of Apple ][ and /// computers. It has been 
available to CP/M and MS/DOS users smce 1984. 

Due to its structure, ATA can be used by teachers with little or no 
computer skills. Having been so well received and due to continued 
requests, RSI has redeveloped it for use on Apple computers. 

Dr. Harry Hanson, an associate of RSI, led the development team. 
Hanson, a computer consultant for 20 years, enhanced the pmduct during 
this redevelopment effort, adding various features that make the product 
even more "friendly and powerful." 

ATA is modeled after the popular RSI Educational Software Series and 
offers the teacher the four most commonly accepted drill/test formats, 
multiple choice, fill-in-the-blank, essay, and tme-false. ATA is independent 
of subject matter; the program developer dictates the topic to be covered. 
The program allows the teacher to enter hints which are available to the 
student at any time the teacher wishes. This feature supplies the student 
with the desired lesson plan while guiding him/her through the drill. The 
teacher may disable the "hint" feature. 

As with all the RSI Educational Software Series, ATA allows the teacher to 
print tests or homework assignments as well as use the computer in a 
classmom/lab envimnment. Built-in security codes prevent unauthorized 
access to the creation edit functions, thereby guaranteeing the integrity of 
the drill for multiple classes and semester-to-semester use. 

Available for most popular computers, the ATA program requires no 
previous training or special computer equipment. ATA is distributed, 
complete with two disks, 30-page documentation manual and a sturdy 
binder, for $89.95. 

RSI is an international distributor of hi-tech products, founded in 1977. 
The company provides free literature to qualified inquiries through a toll-free 
800 number, (8001 526-2396. (In NJ, call (201| 738-8500.1 

Investment/Telecommunications Software 

Smith Micro Software, Inc., announced today that it has reached an 
3q[ee\r\e\]im{\] Spear Securities, Inc., under which Spear will private label 
the Smith Micro line of investment software. Additionally, Spear will offer a 
100% rebate of the software purchase price in the form of brokerage 
commission rebates to the purchaser. This robate offer will apply to software 
packaged under both the Smith Micro and Spear names. 

According to William Smith, President and founder of Huntingdon Beach, 
CA headquartered Smith Micro Software, Inc., this announcement marks the 
launch of a new imaginative method to bring investment software to the 
Market. "Spear Securities is truly an innovator in serving the needs of the 
independent investor", says Smith. "The firm was an eady developer of on- 
line brokerage services and the originator of the 24-hour trade execution 
services. Now, with Smith Micro Software, Spear is breaking new ground in 
the merchandising of investment related software. 



Spear will offer a specialized version of Smith Micro's Market link. The 
Market Link streamlines the process of accessing investment information 
from The Source and the Dow-Jones News Retrieval Service. The Market 
Link automatically obtains quotes at selected intervals, stores them on disk 
and transfers them automatically to popular spreadsheets such as Lotus 1-2- 
3 and data base applications such as Dbase. Other products to be offered by 
Spear will be Smith Micro's Stock Portfolio System, a complete portfolio 
management system, and the Wall Street Techniques, a technical analysis 
charting system. 

"Spear customers who purchase any Smith Micro Software products, 
including the private label Spear products, can use trading commissions to 
earn a full purchase price rebate", says Jeffrey Anthony of Spear Securities, 
manager of the Commission Rebate Program. The rebate amount will vary 
with the trade size and will be as large as 25% on trades involving 
commissions of $150 or more. According to Anthony, Spear commissions, 
before rebate, are lower than those of other major discount brokers. 

The Smith Micro Software, Inc., line of investment software is available 
for the IBM PC series, AT&T 6300, Compaq, Apple Macintosh, and Apple ][ 
and ///. Products are available through local dealers and are distributed by 
Softsel, Micro D, Bonsu, and Software Resources. For further information, 
contact Smith Micro Software, Inc., at (7141 964-0412. 

Agricultural Software 

A free Guided Tour Disk of/4G COUNT, a farm accounting program from/lG 
PLUS® Software, now is available to anyone wishing to review highlights of 
this package. The Guided Tour disk runs on the IBM-PC and compatibles; it 
can be kept and re-used by the computer owner. 

The IBM version is enhanced compared to the previously released Apple ][, 
///, and ProFile versions. However it is the same price, retailing for $495. 
Now, users can name most categories,.keep track of several accounts in one 
system, and mn the program about four times faster. Additional features 
include a help screen, default keys to speed up entn/, and all records stored 
on one disk. 

A major improvement to AG COUNT is the ability to sort deposits and 
checks by "date," by "to whom" the check was written, by "from whom" 
the deposit was received, or by "description." Computer users can review 
the new IBM AG COUNT on the free disk or, for $45, they can purchase a 
demo version, which allows them to analyze the full program. The demo also 
mns on Apple computers. 

Other agricultural software available from AG PLUS Software are Land 
Purchase, Crop Production, Loan Repayment, Invoice Manager, and Fmancial 
Statement. Prices range from $35 to $1 50, and all are available of the Apple ][ 
and /// series, and Macintosh. In addition, Financial Statement (and AG 
COUNT| also mn on the IBM-PC and compatibles. 

AG PLUS Software has marketed software for the farm since 1981. Free 
brochures, sample printouts, and Guided Tour disks (for IBM AG COUNT| are 
available from AG PLUS Software, 906 South Mam, Ida Grove, lA 51445. 
Phone (7121 364-2135. 



1B 



February, 1 386 ON THREE 



A Footnote on Footnotes: 



AppleWriter: A Footnote 



John \o martire 



If you are using AppleWriter /// to 
prepare a document and you need to 
enter a footnote at the bottom of a 
particular page, it is easily done, 
right? After all, page 51 of the 
AppleWriter /// Operating Manual 
describes the correct procedure to 
use. . . or does it? 

According to the manual, Apple- 
Writer /// recognizes footnote text 
if it is included within certain 
delimiters. The manual clearly states: 
"Any text which is preceded by an 
open parenthesis and a less-than 
character and ended with a greater- 
than character and a close paren- 
thesis will be printed at the bottom of 
the page." An example of a footnote 
of about 31 characters is then given. 
One stated procedural requirement 
is that the close parenthesis at the 
end of the footnote must be followed 
by a space. It is strange that the page 
51 section on footnotes makes no 
mention of some other important 
information given on page 94 under 
"WPL Execution Errors." This latter 
page reveals that: ''WPL error: 
Footnote overflow (Press RETURN)" 
will appear on the screen if there are 
more than 1024 characters of foot- 
notes in a single page. "Space for 
1024 characters of footnotes is 
provided. . ." the manual says. 

Maybe page 51 does not mention 
page 94 because the latter page is at 
least misleading, if not downright 
wrong. Apple Computer tries very 
hard to provide good documentation 
with its software, but problems or 
"bugs" do arise, and it is the users 
who eventually discover any unknown 
weaknesses. Before going on to the 
problem of multiple line footnotes, 
the following information enhances 
that given in the AppleWriter /// 
manual: 



AppleWriter /// recognizes the 
presence of a footnote when two 
characters, the open parenthesis 
"(" and the less-than sign "<", 
occur in successive keystrokes. In 
like fashion, it takes a gr eater - 
than sign "> " immediately followed 
by a close parenthesis "J" as a 
signal for the end of the footnote. 
If either one or both or the starting 
delimiters, the 'Y" or the "<" is 
not present, no footnote will be 
printed and the entire text, 
including the supposed footnote, 
will appear in the body of the 
paragraph. If either one or both of 
the final delimiters, the ">" or 
the ")" is not present, the pro- 
grams stops with a "WPL Footnote 
Overflow'' error signal. Since the 
footnote was started and not 
ended, the program assumes an 
infinitely large footnote, even if 
only one character appears after 
the starting delimiters! 

Another procedural point. As 
mentioned earlier, a space must 
follow the closing delimiters. Here is 
what happens if the space is omitted. 
For example, if text is typed in as 
follows: 

Footnotes (<See this article >) are 
sometimes necessary 

then it would appear in print as: 

Footnotes re sometimes necessary 

(Note that the "a" in "are" is 

absent) ; 

See this article <<- (This footnote 
would appear 
at the bottom 
of the page.) 

However, if the same line is typed 
this way: 

Footnotes (< See this article >) are 
sometimes necessary 



then text and footnote will be properly 
printed.'^' 

Finally, remember that if a foot- 
note is included in some text but the 
total amount of text is insufficient to 
reach the bottom of the page, a 
formfeed (.FF) command must be 
inserted after the last line of text to 
force the printer to the bottom of the 
page where the footnote will be 
printed. (Operating Manual, page 
51). 

Now that various procedural steps 
have been covered, here is what you 
face with this software when you 
have a need for multiple line foot- 
notes brought about by a long 
footnote, or several footnotes. 

1. There is no indication in the 
manual that a "WPL Footnote 
Overflow" message may appear 
even if the number of footnote 
characters is much less than the 
1024 figure mentioned on page 
94. 

2. Nothing in the manual will 
instruct the user on whether it is 
possible to enter more than a one- 
line footnote. 

3. On page 51, the manual does not 
reveal how many footnotes can be 
entered on a page, assuming that 
any length restriction is not ex- 
ceeded. The information on page 
94 would lead one to believe that 
about 1024 ^X (where X is the 
number of characters in the indi- 
vidual footnote entry) lines of text 
could appear at the bottom of the 
page. 

4. Nothing in the manual explains 
what happens if you enter a foot- 
note of more than 80 characters in 
a document format that is only 80 
characters wide. 

^ "Apple Tech Notes, " 7/7/82 points out 
this need for a trailing space. 



ON THREE February, 1 9BB 



1"7 



Table 1— Actual number of footnote lines permitted 


This table illustrates how many footnote tines were actually accepted in 


a comprehensive testing program: 


Characters/line Nd. of footnote lines of length shown In 1st column 


1 128 


2 86 


3 64 


4 52 


S 43 


: 6 37 


7 32 


8 29 


9 26 


10 24 


11 22 


12 20 


13 19 


14 18 


15--^16 16 


17 15 


18 14 


19-^20 13 


21-^22 12 


23->24 11 


25-^27 10 


28-^30 9 


31^35 8 


36-^41 7 


42^50 6 


61-^62 5 


63^^84 4 


85-^127 3 



Does all this mean that the 
AppleWriter /// user is restricted to 
single line footnotes? Not necessarily. 
Determining how many footnote 
lines the program will accept can be 
tricky, however. 

Here, then, are the results of exten- 
sive trial-and-error testing: 

-^ There is a maximum allowable 
length to a footnote line. Footnotes 
of more than 127 characters will 
generate the now-familiar message: 
":WPL Error: Footnote Overflow.'"^^ 

-^Footnote lines longer than the 
document line length but less 
than the total allowable length 
mentioned above will wrap onto 
the next printed line. 

-^ Multiple line footnotes are possible. 
Suppose a 240 character footnote 
is needed for a document that will 
be printed 80 characters wide. 

2 Ibid, states that footnotes must be less 
than 132 characters in length to pre- 
vent the overflow message. Perhaps 
this value is meant to include the two 
pairs of delimiters and the trailing 
space. 



Obviously this would involve three 
lines for this one footnote. How- 
ever, it is impossible to enter a 240 
character footnote directly, since 
it exceeds the 127 character limit 
mentioned above. To accomplish 
this, proceed as follows: 



(<enter first 80 characters>) 

(<enter second 80 characters>) 

(< enter third 80 characters >) 

(Note: replace the " " with a 

single space.) 

Remember to count all letters, 
punctuations, spaces, etc., as 
characters, but do not count the 
footnote delimiters. 

- There is a limitation of the total 
number of lines of footnotes per 
page, but it is nowhere near the 
1024 characters mentioned on 
page 94 of the manual. As a matter 
of fact, the total number of lines 
can be approximated by this 
equation: 

No. of footnote lines = INT 
((159.732/(X.854433)) + .5) 

. . .where X is the number of 
characters per footnote line, as- 
suming all lines are of equal 
length. This calculation will give 
an estimate of the permissable 
number of lines. See Table 1 for the 
actual number of lines permitted. 

► With footnotes of varying charac- 
ter count, the maximum number 
of lines per page can be approxi- 
mated by comparing the average 
of the line lengths to the first 
column entries in Table 1. Exam- 
ples are given in Table 2. 

(Cont:'d on page S9] 



Table 2 
Number of footnote lines with varying 
Footnote Average 
Line Length Line Length 


character c 
Max. 
of Lin 


ounts in 

Nbr. 

es 


the lines 
Table 
Value ;|i| 


1-H.22 




11.5 


22 




v-mssm 


incr, 1 
10-^24 




17 


15 




nmm 


incr. 1 
20-^30 




25 


11 




wmmimmsmmmmmmmmmm 

■ipilillil 


incr. 1 
5^50 




27.5 


10 




iiiiiiili 


incr. .5 
50-^15 




32.5 


8 




■ilillili 


incr -5 
1; 127; 2 
127; 96; 
127; 71; 
127; 71; 


; 126 
71 

46; 33 
46; 127 


64 
98 

69.25 
92.75 


4 
3 
4 
4 




lllliiilllll 

lllilllllll" 







1B 



February, 1 9SB ON THREE 



utility: 



Fooling the Apple DMP 



jerry lewicki 



Introduction 

The Apple Dot Matrix Printer (functionally equivalent 
to the Apple ImageWriter) is an excellent printer and a 
compatible accessory to the Apple /// computer system. 
But as anyone who owns the ADMP realizes, operation of 
the printer is difficult to learn since the manufacturer has 
not included sufficient reference material. Without a 
special feature printer interface card such as the Pkaso, it 
is difficult and time consuming to set up print functions on 
the Apple Dot Matrix Printer using only a Universal 
Parallel Interface Card (UPIC) . Similar problems are also 
experienced by Apple ][ users whose choice in parallel 
interface cards may limit easy access to some of the 
printer's many functions. The difficulty lies not with the 
printer but in the lack of reference materials to explain 
how to access the printer's features. 

Apple does include a demonstration disk with each 
ADMP which is helpful in providing some instructions for 
installing, connecting and using the printer. However, the 
"DMP EXERCISER" program on this demo leaves much 
to be desired in explaining how to develop printer control 
operations for character styles, format design and 
graphics. Furthermore, the demo is written in Applesoft 
format and must therefore be run exclusively in Apple ///'s 
Emulation Mode. 

Of course, one way for Apple /// users to overcome these 
ADMP control handicaps is to obtain an interface card 
designed to utilize all of the ADMP's functions. There are 
several such interfaces (ie. Pkaso ///) which contribute 
significantly to harnessing the printer's various formats. 
However, not all Apple /// users have these full-featured 
interfaces, having purchased only the standard (UPIC) 
type along with the printer. The set up and operation of 
the ADMP using only a standard interface is a challenge 
and requires practice to learn. 

Software Printer Control 

Software control of the ADMP is not difficult but 
requires significant effort and practice, especially for the 
novice. Information on function controls for the ADMP 
are tabulated on the ADMP Reference Card. Once the 
ADMP DIP Switch configuration settings (Standard 
Switch Setting) have been selected, control of printer 
functions require only sending the proper sequence of 
control codes to the printer. 

Print, format and graphics commands may be directed 
to the printer from several different programs. For 
example, in Business BASIC, the format for sending a 
printer control command to the printer is: 



1 OPEN #1, ".PRINTER" 
2PRINT#1CHR$(27);"r 
3 CLOSE #1 

where CHR$(27);"!" is the control command ESC ! for 
selecting the bold print function. In various word process- 
ing systems (ie. Apple Writer///) these control commands 
may be embedded in the text, and selection of the printer 
options will be controlled directly by the word processor 
itself during text printing. Other programs have a variety 
of ways (ie. menus) to select printer functions. 

An obvious method of selecting printing options for the 
ADMP is by deciding what print functions are needed and 
then selecting the appropriate printer commands. Such 
an approach may be accomplished by developing a menu- 
driven program which sends predefined control code 
commands to the printer. This approach eliminates the 
cumbersome inputting of configuration or formatting 
strings required in different program environments and 
conditions. 



I no 
no 

l?8 

140 
150 
160 
170 
180 
190 
200 

210 
220 
230 
240 

250 

260 
270 

280 
290 
300 

310 
320 
330 
340 
350 
360 
370 
380 
390 



RFM *«»««»»»«»♦»»»»»»« 
REM » PROGRAM FOR SELECTING PRINTER » 
REM « Fl.NCTlOt-JS ON THE APPLE DOT » 
REM * MATRIX AND IMAGEWRITER PRINTERS » 
REM » BY J U LEWICKI (c) 1985 On /// » 
REM ****************** 
HCME 

DIM MENIJ*(30).P1CK*(30),POINTER(30,30) 
FOR INDEX=1 TO 29 

READ MENU* (INDEX) 

NEXT INDEX 
GOSUB 1680 :REM * PRINT PROGRAM INSTRUCT 
IONS * 

HCME: PRINT; PRINT 

REM *♦*«««»*««**»*«««» 
REM « » SELECT I W MENU BEGINS HERE * * 
REM ****************** 
PRINT'Select Printer Functions -from the 
Following Menu:":PRlNT 
FOR INDEX=1 TO 9 



PRINT TAB<10>;V;INDEX;"> 

"; MENU* (INDEX) 

NEXT INDEX 
FOR INDEX=10 TO 18 

PRINT TAB(10):"<";INDEX;"> 

"{MENU* (INDEX) 

NEXT INDEX 
PRINT 

PRINT TAB(30); 
IWERSE 

PRlNT'Enter Selection (0 to Exit) ..."; 
GOSUB 1400 :REM * INPLIT SUBROLITINE » 
SELECT*=STORE* 
NORMAL 

IF VAL(SELECT*)=0 THEN 1080: REM * LIST 
CHOICES * 



ON THREE February, 1 9B6 



19 



Printer Set-up Program 

Using Business BASIC, the program described in 
Listing 1 was developed specifically to allow easy access 
for selection of various ADMP print options. This program 
incorporates menus containing the most commonly used 
print functions. With only one or two keystrokes, any print 
command on the menu can be sent directly to the ADMP 
and the printer will be set up to execute the requested 
functions. Since these are software commands, the use of a 
special printer interface is not required. 

The "ADMP PRINTER" program is completely menu- 
driven and offers a selection of five different character 
print sizes including 9,10,12,15 and 17 characters/inch, 
large and small proportional spacing, elongated print, 
bold print, slashed or plain zeros, eleven vertical line 
spacings and unidirectional or bidirectional printing. By 
selecting from the twenty-nine different options on the 
menu, the Apple DMP can be set up with innumerable 
printing combinations to output word processor text, 
BASIC, PASCAL, data base or other text matter in the 
desired output format. 

Program Development 

The approach to developing this printer set up program 
was based on several considerations. First, the selection of 
options was limited to reasonable and applicable choices. 
Next, appropriate menus containing printer control 
characters were developed. Finally, a method of listing the 
options in the order selected along with a way of returning 
to the menus was implemented. These objectives were 
accomplished using several arrays to establish storage and 
retrieval systems for text, menu and cumulative option 
selections. The primary arrays are described below: 



ARRAYS 

MENU$(30) — Store text descriptions 

PICK$(30) — Store selections 

POINTER(30,30) — Index selections. 



Principle variables used throughout this program include 
the following: 



VARIABLES 
SELECTS 
CHOICES 
ORDER 



— Contains first menu selection 

— Contains second menu selection 

— Contains order of selections 



There are two menus in this program: the print options 
menu (Figure 1) and the line spacing menu (Figure 2) . The 
main print option menu is located at lines 250-350 and the 
line spacing menu begins at lines 680-780. Keyboard selec- 
tions for each menu are transferred through an input 
subroutine (lines 1400-1670) designed to specifically 
accept only numeric input, limited to two characters, with 
a backspacing deletion function. (For detailed infor- 
mation on this inputting routine, refer to Durkee, David, 
"Follow The Floating Point," Softalk, March 1984.) 



The text for the menus is first read into the MENU$ 
array at the beginning of the program (lines 170-190) from 
DATA statements at lines 1280-1320. Then, instructions 
for using this program are generated on the screen by 
PRINT statements located at lines 1710-1800. Following 
the instruction screen, the main menu is displayed and the 
program is ready to accept selections. 



400 REM ♦ LIMIT SELECTION BETWEEN AND 18 

410 IF VAL<SELECT$)<0 OR MALC SELECTS) >1 8 TH 

EN 210 
420 0RDER=0RDER+1:REM » MAINTAINS ORDER OF 

SELECTIONS « 
430 REM »**«***»»**«***♦*» 
440 REM * PRINTER CONTROL CMDS BEGIN HERE * 
450 REM »*»*»*»******♦***» 
460 0PEN#1 ".PPRINT" 
470 CW UAL(SELECT$) GOTO 480.490.500.510.52 

0,530.540,550,560,570,580,590,600,680,6 

10,620,630.640 
480 PRINTS! :CHR^(27);"n-:P0INTER(0RDER,l)=l 

'.GOTO 1030 
490 PRINT#1:CHR$(27);"N':P0INTER(0RDER,2)=1 

:GOTO 1030 
500 PRINT«ljCHR$(27);"E":P0INTER<0RDER,3)=l 

:G0T0 1030 
510 PRINT«l:CHR$(27);"q":P0INTER(0RDER,4)=l 

:G0T0 1030 
520 PRINT#1:CHR^(27);"Q':P0INTER(0RDER,5)=1 

:GOTO 1030 
530 PRINTHl :CHR$(27) ;■ ' • :P0INTER(0RDER,6)=1 

:G0T0 1030 
540 PRINTS |CHR$(27);CHR$(34):P0INTER(0RDER 

.7)=1:G6tO 1030 
550 PRINTil ;CHR$( 14) :P0INTER(0RDER,8)=1 :GOT 

1030 
560 PRINT#1 ;CHR$(15) :P0INTER(0RDER,9)=1 :GOT 

1030 
570 PRINTI»1:CHR$(27);'P":POINTER(ORDER,10)= 

IrGOTO 1030 
580 PRINT«l:CHR$(27>;"p":P0INTER(0RDER,ll)= 

1:60T0 1030 



590 PRiNTIIl;CHR$(27);'A":P0INTER(0RDER,l2)«l 

•.GOTO 1030 
600 PRINT#1;CHR*^27);'B-;P0INTER(0RDER,13)»1 

:60T0 1030 
610 PRINT#1;CHR$(27);"D1*:P0INTER<0RDER,15)» 

1:G0T0 1030 
620 PRINT«l;CHRi(27);"Zl":P0INTER(0RDER,16)« 

1:60T0 1030 
630 PRINT#l;CHRi(27);->":P01NTER(0RDER,17)»l 

:GOTO 103U 
640 PRINT#l:CHR$r27);*C:P0INTER<0RDER,18)«l 

:60T0 1030 
650 REM *«*«*«**i^*«^**i(**# 
660 REM * SPECIAL LINE SPACE MENU BEGINS * 
670 REM **««*««««««*#*««** 
680 HOME 
690 PR1NT2PRINT:PRINT-Select Special Line Sp 

acinq (inches) :' -.PRINT 
700 FOR INDEX=1 TO 9 

710 PRINT TAB(10);'<';1NDEX;"/ 

•;MENU$<INDEXM8) 
720 NEXT INDEX 
730 FOR INDEX=10 TO 11 

740 PRINT TAB<10);"<MNDEX;"> ■ 

;MENU$< INDEX* 18) 
750 NEXT INDEX 
760 PRINT:PRINT:PRINT TAB(30); 
770 IN^^ERSE 

780 PRINT'Enter Selection (0 to Exit)...'; 
790 GOSUB 1400 :REM * INPUT SUBROUTINE * 
800 CHOICE$=STORE$ 
810 NORMAL 
820 IF VAL(CH01CE$)=0 THEN ORDER=^ORDER-l 26OT 



20 



February, 1 986 ON THREE 



After the menu selections are made, the resulting 
printer control codes are transferred directly to the 
printer. Lines 480 through 640 contain the print control 
commands for the main menu while lines 890-990 contain 
the line spacing commands. A paper alignment correction 
is required after each control command. This correction, 
defined in line 1030, maintains the position of the paper in 
the printer at its initial location. Following the selection, 
the program lists the options chosen in the order they were 
selected and allows the user to either input another 
selection or terminate the program . This routine is located 
at lines 1080-1240. 



Conclusions 

The ADMP PRINTER program offers several advan- 
tages in setting up the Apple Dot Matrix Printer. Using 
the menu-driven mode of selection, print functions can 
easily be transferred to the printer without incorporating 
long input strings. Several combinations of options maybe 
easily chosen and each option is listed in the order 
selected. Finally, since this is done entirely in software, no 
special printer interfaces are required. 

This useful BASIC program may also be expanded by 
incorporating additional print formatting commands, 
custom character commands and graphic mode selec- 
tions. Furthermore, the program may even be modified as 
a device driver for incorporation into the SOS. DRIVER 
thus allowing the printer to be set up directly from any 
SOS system program installed with this driver. £777 



830 REM * LIMIT SELECTION BETWEEN AND 11 

« 
840 IF VAL(CHOICE*)<0 OR MAL(CH01CE*)>U TH 

EN 680 
850 REM ****************** 
8<50 REM » PRINTER CONTROL COMMANDS FOR * 
865 REM * LINE SPACING BEGIN HERE » 
870 REM ****************** 
880 ON UAL(CHOICE*) GOTO 890.900,910,920,93 

, 940 , 950 , 9<S0 , 970 , 980 , 990 
890 n=10:PRINT«l;CHR*(27) 

R,19)=l!G0T0 1030 
900 n=15:PRINT«l;CHR*<27) 

R,20)=1:GOTO 1030 
910 n=25 : PRINT ♦ll;CHR*( 27) 

R,21)=1:G0T0 1030 
920 n=35:PRlNT«l;CHR*(27) 

R,22)=1:60T0 1030 
930 n=43!PRINT#l;CHR$(27) 

R,23)=1:G0T0 1030 
940 n=53:PRlNT#l;CHR$<27) 

R,24)=1:G0T0 1030 
950 n=60:PRINT«l;CHR»(27) 

R,25)=1:G0T0 1030 
960 n=70:PRINT«l-,CHR*(27) 

R,26)=1:G0T0 1030 
970 n=80:PRINT*ll;CHR$(27) 

R,27)=1:G0T0 1030 
980 n=90:PRINT«l;CHR$<27) 

R,28)=1:G0T0 1030 
990 n=99 : PRINT »I1;CHR*( 27) 

R,29)=l:G0T0 1030 
1000 REM «*»*«««» 
1010 REM » CORRECTION FOR PAPER ALIGNMENT* 
1015 REM » WITH REVERSE/FORWARD FEED * 
1020 REM »«««»««***»»***** 



'T"n:POINTER<ORDE 
"T"n:POINTER(ORDE 
'T'n:POINTER(ORDE 
"T"n:POINTER(ORDE 
•T"n:POINTER(ORDE 
•T"n:POINTER(ORDE 
■T'ntPOINTERCORDE 
■T'n:POINTER(ORDE 
•T'n:POINTER(ORDE 
■T"n:POINTER(ORDE 
■T'n:POINTER(ORDE 
********* 



1030 

1040 
1050 
1060 
1065 
1070 
1080 
1090 
1100 
1110 

1120 
1130 
1140 
1150 

1160 
1170 
1180 
1190 
1200 
1210 
1220 

1230 
1240 
1250 
1260 
1270 
1280 



1290 

1300 

1310 
1320 



1330 
1340 
1350 

1360 
1370 
1380 
1390 
1400 
1410 

1420 

1430 
1440 

1450 

1460 

1470 
1480 
1490 
1500 



PRINT#l;CHR»(27);"r":PRINT«l5CHR»(27);' 

r":PRINT«l5CHR*<27);"r 

CL0SE#1 

*************** 
PRINT OUTPUT DESCRIBING ♦ * 
COMMANDS SELECTED * * 
*************** 



REM » « 

REM * « 

REM * * 

REM « « 

HOiE 

FOR J=l TO ORDER 

FOR K=l TO 29 

IF P01NTER(J,K;=1 THEN PICK»(J)=MEN 

Ui(K) 

NEXT K 

NEXT J 
IF ORDER=0 THEN 1190!PRINT:PRINT 
PRINT-Pr inter Set-Up With The Followinq 

Functions ...":PRINT 
FOR INDEX=1 TO ORDER 

PRINT TAB( 10); INDEX". " jPlCKtC INDEX) 

NEXT INDEX 
PRINT '.PRINT ;PRINT 
PRINT TAB(30); 
INVERSE 

PRINT'Another Printer Function Selectio 
n (y/n) ?' 
GET ANSWER$:NOraiAL 

IF ANSWER»="Y" OR fi*4SWER$="y" THEN 210 
REM ***************** 
REM » « TEXT FOR MENU DESCRIPTIWS« « 
REM «««««*««*««♦*««»* 

WA let ?n!F,^^^5^rPl6g^^Rl^f)^1f gfi 

aracters per inch (ELITE PRINT), 15 Char 

acters per inch, 17 Characters per inch 

DATA Bold Print, Bold Print O-ff , Elongate 

d CharacterSiElongated Characters 0^t,S 

mall Proportional SpacinQ,LarQe Proport 

lonai Spacinq 

DATA Stx Lines ger inch (NORMAL.) ,EiQht 

Lines per inch, Special Line Spacing, Zer 

owith Slash, Zero wi thout Slash, Unidire 

ctional Print , Bidirectional Print 

Data Spacinq 1/16 Apart , Spacinq 1./8 Apa 

rt, Spacing 1/4 Apart , Spacing 378 Apart, 

Spacinq 1/2 Apart , Spacinq 5/8 Apart 

DATA Spacing 3/4 Apart ,Spac ing 7/8 Aoar 

t, Spacinq 1 Apart ,bpacinq 1 1/8 Apart, S 

pacinq ri/4 Apart 

HOiE ' 

MP0S=8:HP0S=22 

PRINT". ...PRINTER READY 

. . . .":UP0S=24 

END 

REM ***************** 

REM * * INPUT SUBROUTINE ♦ * 

REM ****«*^^*******«* 

STuRE$=" * 

GET KEYPRESS*: REM « INPUT FRW KEYBOARD 

♦ 
REM » IF INPUT IS A CONTROL CI+^RACTER.C 
HECK FOR BACKSPACE * 
IF ASC(KEYPRESS*)<32 THEN 1510 
REM * LIMIT INPUT TO NWERIC DATA WLY 
* 

IF ASC V KE r PRESS* .' <. 48 OR ASC < KEYPRESS* ) > 
57 OR ASC(KEYPRESS*)=47 THEN 1410 
IF LEN<ST0RE*)-2 THEN 1410 :REM * LIMIT 
INPUT TO 2 CHARCTERS ♦ 
STORE*=STORE*+ KEYPRESS* 
PRINT KEYPRESS*; 
GOTO 1410: REM « NEXT ENTRY « 
REM * IF INPUT IS NOT rt BACKSPACE, CHECK 

(Cont'd on page SB] 



ON THREE February, 1 aas 



P-1 



Evaluating Software: 



Computer Applications 



llona Cunningham 



Computer hardware was meant to 
do more than sit on and decorate 
your desk. It is all well and good that 
you have an Apple ///, a hard disk 
and a printer sitting there, but for 
your computer system to work for 
you, it must also have software appli- 
cations programs, utility programs, 
system programs, and storage media. 

Applications programs are what 
determine whether you will write a 
letter to Uncle Harry, figure your 
family budget, slay green dragons to 
rescue a princess, or build a filing 
system ranging from a handful of 
phone numbers to a comprehensive 
encyclopedia of personal facts. These 
are the programs that cause the 
computer to do what it does best — 
work for you. 

Some programs are General Appli- 
cations programs. They provide a 
general function which you can use 
to accomplish many different tasks. 
Word processing, spreadsheet and 
data base management programs are 
all examples of general applications. 

If you want to write letters, reports, 
memos, etc., you'll need a word 
processing program (and a printer 
for the finished text) . If you want to 
do financial analyses or anything 
based primarily on numbers and 
mathematics, a spreadsheet program 
will fit the bill. To organize (with 
search and sort capabilities) the 
family medical records, the Christ- 
mas list, the stereo or video library 
catalog, etc., a data base manage- 
ment program will handle your 
requirements. 

Games and specialty functions 
like handicapping horses, nutritional 
menu planning, and genealogy chart- 
ing can be found in specific applica- 
tions programs. Other examples of 
specific applications programs in- 
clude graphics drawing aids such as 
Draw On ///, stock market analysis, 
accounting (general ledger, payroll. 



receivables, etc.), educational pro- 
grams and more. 

Utility programs are a necessary 
part of the computer system. They 
make everything as easy as possible 
for the user. Utility programs handle 
all of the odd-ball tasks that you 
need to do, formatting blank disks, 
copying disks, transfering files from 
one disk to another, listing files from 
your disk directory, erasing old, no 
longer needed files, etc. 

Utility programs handle 
all the odd-ball tasks and 
system programs are most 
important of alL 

System programs are the most 
important of all. In fact, your computer 
would not function without them. 
Curiously, they are the files with the 
strange names like SOS.KERNEL 
and SOS.INTERP that you have the 
least to do with. They include invok- 
able modules and drivers such as 
.PRINTER and others essential to 
your peripherals. Among them also 
are high level language interpreters, 
e.g.. Business Basic and Pascal, 
which allow you to write your own 
programs. They serve as a translator 
between the English-like words and 
phrases you can relate to, and the 
low-level hieroglyphics that only the 
computer understands. 

Storage media is the term for the 
floppy disks where your applications 
and other programs and their result- 
ing data are stored. A good supply of 
blank disks is as important to your 
overall computer system as are the 
applications, utility and system 
programs and hardware. 

Your standard Apple disk drive 
system uses 5V4 inch floppy disks 
with 140K storage capacity. This 
140K is divided into 280 blocks of 512 
bytes each, for a total of 143,360 



characters. When you format a disk, 
seven blocks are used by SOS for 
housekeeping, leaving 273 blocks 
(139,776 characters) of free space for 
data files. Each file in turn uses a 
minimum of one block for header and 
pointer information in addition to 
the space used for actual data storage. 
A large file may use two or three 
blocks for the header information. 

With all the record-keeping involved, 
it is sometimes necessary to look to 
storage devices with larger capacities, 
especially so if your data files tend to 
be large (250 or more entries in a data 
base file). Even though 139,000 
characters seems like a lot, many 
data base programs use one full block 
or more for each record (each entry or 
page) in the file, even if that record 
contains as few as ten characters. 

• • • many data base 
programs use an entire 
block for a single record. 

The kind of information you are 
storing (constant sized records vs 
non-constant) must be considered as 
well as the amount. 

Mid-range drives such as the low- 
priced 800K Apple UniDisk ///.5 or 
the Micro- Sci A- 143 can be installed 
on your system for added floppy 
capacity. In many cases, the 572 to 
800K storage is sufficient for any 
project you care to undertake. Another 
type of storage media is the hard disk 
drive. A few files are simply to large 
to fit on any single floppy and too 
cumbersome to spread over several 
floppies with all the disk swapping 
inherent in that practice. A hard disk 
solves the problem by offering storage 
capacities in megabyte ranges (one 
million characters equals one mega- 
byte.) Typical hard disks handle 
from five (ProFile) to 30 (Trustor) or 
40 megabytes. 



22 



February, 1 9B6 ON THREE 



Job Organization Procedure 

Using an organized procedure to 
determine which software (or even 
which of several methods on the 
same piece of software) will do the 
job best is the key to saving time and 
increasing productivity. This is the 
reason most of us have computers in 
the first place. 

How Do You Know What You Need? 

Computer applications can be 
divided into three functions: data in, 
data out, and the processing which 
must go on between the former two. 
Look at your project carefully. 

Look at your project 
coreFullv. 

Exactly what information are you 
planning to put into the computer? 
Exactly what information do you 
want to get out of the computer? 
Exactly what will the computer need 
to do with your input information in 
order to produce your output infor- 
mation correctly? Defining what 
you're going to put in and what you 
want to get out can help you organize 
your project, making sure you have 
correctly determined what informa- 
tion is required to produce the 
desired results. 

Defining what the computer must 
do for you is likely to show you what 
kind of program you need to do the 
job. 

Word Processor— Text Functions 

To do word processing you'll need 
word processing software. There are 
low-priced, minimal use programs 
which do well in the home if replac- 
ing the typewriter is your only need. 
There are mid-priced models which 
do a commendable job and can be 
expanded with spelling dictionaries 
and other features aimed at the 
business user. There are also high- 
priced models containing every fea- 
ture imaginable, and which some 
reviewers think no one should be 
without. 

If word processing is to be an 
integral use of your computer, take 
the time to investigate several pro- 
grams. Compare their cost against 
the work they will perform, and 
against the work you actually want 
to do. 



Find out if the program can access 
the files of other programs (particu- 
larly spreadsheet data). Try to put 
together a complimentary 'set' so 
you'll be able to move information 
from other files into your word pro- 
cessor text without having to re- 
keyboard the data. 

Spreadsheet— Math Functions 

Number calculations with a spread- 
sheet program are among the most 
flexible applications of both home 
and business computer systems. 
With a spreadsheet program you can 
plan your budget, keep track of your 
finances, chart the stock market, the 
racing world, your favorite teams 
and players, or virtually anything 
else having to do with numbers. 

Spreadsheet programs should 
be investigated for the same cost/ 
performance efficiency as any other 
purchase. They should also be looked 
at for their ease of use and special 
requirements. If what you see on the 
screen is overly complicated you may 
lose interest before you ever learn to 
apply the program to your needs. Be 
careful of picking 'beginner' programs. 
All that helpful prompting informa- 
tion on the screen is great when you 
start, but when you've used it for the 
hundredth time you might wish the 
helpful paragraph would disappear 
and let you see more of your own 
data. A few clever programs will keep 
the help data out of sight, just a 
keystroke away. 

List Management (DBM) 

List management or file manage- 
ment programs, those generally 
referred to as DBM (for Data Base 
Management) programs, are perhaps 
the most diverse collection of choices 
you will find in general applications 
programs. List management is a 
complicated process with several 
methods of handling the information. 
Not all users need all of the many 
ways of managing data. 

Start by gathering all the facts you 
can about the information you will be 
processing and how you want it 
maintained. How many items do you 
want on each record? How many 
records will the file ultimately 
contain? How do you want to retrieve 
the information — what alpha-order, 
screen, printer, etc.? Then, carefully 
compare what each available DBM 
program offers. 



The DBM program will handle 
that final 'general' applications job: 
organizing, putting in alphabetical 
order and calling up specific infor- 
mation on demand: information 
management. 

Specific Applications 

Most applications (even some 
which could be handled as well by 
the general categories) can be found 
in ready-to-use programs designed 
for specific applications. 

Specific applications for business 
include accounting modules such as 
general ledger, payroll, receivables, 
payables, inventory, point-of-sale, 
and many more. For home and 
family use, specific applications 
include nutritional meal-planning 
and menu maintenance, stock-market 
tracking, checkbook management, 
education, music, art games and a 
list of others that would literally fill a 
book. Ask your dealer for sugges- 
tions. Browse computer magazines 
for ads and reviews. Check any soft- 
ware index publications your dealer 
may carry. 

IF commercial softuiare is 
unavailable, \fov have 
three options , . . 

Programming 
(Unique Applications) 

Some projects may be so unique 
that no commercial software is 
available. In this case, you have 
three basic options: hire a profes- 
sional programmer to design the 
software for you, scour the public 
domain offerings for usable material, 
or learn programming and write your 
own. 

Hiring a professional programmer 
is usually the most expensive option 
and not necessarily the fastest, so 
you should investigate alternatives 
before committing yourself. The fees 
charged by professional programmers 
become cost efficient only when your 
project is complicated and/or your 
own time is limited. In some cases 
you may find that a project would 
require 50 or 60 hours of your time 
(which you may not have to spare) 
just to learn the process and complete 
the material. Measured against the 
professional's fee, the bottom line 
dictates the most effective option. 



ON THREE February, 1 986 



23 



Searching public offerings doesn't 
always bring results, but it's still 
worth a try, even if you ultimately 
decide to write the program yourself. 
Public domain programs are rarely 
written by professionals. More often 
they aren't even complete programs, 
but routines for performing various 
tasks. They can teach you a great 
deal about programming, and find- 
ing a routine you can use is a time 
saver over figuring out how to do it 
yourself. Public domain programs 
can be found in computer magazines 
and in online databases such as 
CompuServe^ and Interface Age 
Data Exchange^'^. Special interest 
computer groups are also a good 
source. 

Learning to program . • • 
is reuiarding. 

Learning to program the computer 
by yourself is by far the most reward- 
ing option but also the most time- 
consuming. Writing good commercial 
programs is an art that few master. 
Writing for your own use is a learned 
skill which could well serve your own 
needs and become the most reward- 
ing answer. The key is the necessary 
motivation to learn, the patience, 
and the time to practice and become 
proficient. 

There are many programming 
languages from which to choose. 
Assembly is for the experienced but 
gives you the greatest degree of 
control; FORTRAN and COBOL are 
generally found on larger (mainframe) 
computers but are also available on 
Apple; BASIC is the most common 
language because, using English-like 
words, it is easy to learn and flexible 
enough to perform most tasks users 
have in mind. 

BASIC — Beginner's All-purpose 
Symbolic Instruction Code is a 
straightforward method of using 
numbered lines to instruct the com- 
puter. At run-time, the computer exe- 
cutes the instructions in the sequence 
specified by the line numbers. 

Pascal is a popular programming 
language which offers advantages 
over BASIC in speed and control but 
is more difficult to learn, requiring 
strict adherence to program struc- 
ture and format. It is usually taken 
up as a 'second' language after 



not necessarily be. Pascal uses a 
mastering BASIC, though this need 
free-form format instead of line 
numbers. Each separate task is 
written as a module complete unto 
itself and with an identifying name. 
The main program then calls the 
modules by name. 

Wise Buying 

Buying a computer system for the 
home is not like running to the corner 
grocery for a loaf of bread. Neither is 
it a wise practice to drop in at the 
local department store and pick up a 
piece of hardware or software that 
neither you or the salespeople know 
how to operate. You know the old rub 
about buying used cars — would you 
buy one from a salesman who couldn't 
drive? 

Along the same line is the problem 
of mail-order purchases. Ordering 
from a special interest group such as 
ON THREE is a respectable choice. 
You can be assured that anything 
they offer for sale has been thoroughly 
tried and tested and will perform as 
specified. They have a vested interest 
in promoting products they have 
found useful and in letting you know 
about those they have found to be 
duds. At any rate, you can be sure 
they will do everything they can to 
assist with any problems which 
might arise. 

• • • there is no one to help 
solve the problems. 

Mail-order through mass-market 
dealers who advertise in magazines is 
quite another matter. Their business 
is based on sales and not help, and it 
shows. You never know for sure what 
you're getting until it arrives, if it 
arrives, and even when it does, there 
is no one to help solve the little 
problems that invariably arise with 
new equipment or software. Mail- 
order purchasing should be left to the 
accomplished enthusiast who won't 
need help from the seller. Even then, 
there is substantial risk. 

Choose an authorized dealer and 
ask about repair/return/exchange 
policies before you buy. If you receive 
a piece of hardware at home and it 
doesn't work, will they repair it? Are 
they qualified to repair it? If it must 
be sent back to the manufacturer, will 
they ship it for you? How long is the 



warranty period? If you're going to be 
left out in the cold as soon as you walk 
through the door, don't buy it. 

Most dealers will not accept returns 
on software and for good reason. But 
a reputable dealer won't object to 
your 'test-driving' software on store 
machines before you commit your- 
self. Take time to test each disk and 
make sure they work. Study the 
manualor potential problems. Try a 
sample (if you can) of your own data 
to make sure the program will do the 
job you're considering it for. If not, 
the time to look for another program 
is before you pay for the first one. If 
you aren't sure what you need, ask 
for help. Nobody knows all the 
answers, but your dealer should main- 
tain a list of people who can offer 
suggestions for many applications. 

Understanding the strengths and 
limitations of the software, knowing 
what to look for when shopping for 
software or peripherals, and knowing 
how to get started when you have 
made a new purchase are all part 
of sensible and intelligent decision 
making. 

After the Fact 

Your test run in the store will have 
told you much about getting your 
new acquisition up and running. 
Once you have it in the quiet of you 
home or office, study the manual 
again. Look for additional features 
which might be useful to your project. 
Many software packages offer fea- 
tures we overlook during a brief store 
examination. Make a few more tests 
to familiarize yourself with the 
product and practice alternative 
methods which may appeal to you. 
Any required adjustments are con- 
siderably easier to make on small 
sample files before you have spent 
a great deal of time keyboarding 
data. 

Finally, will it become obsolete 
before the ink on your check is dry? 
Compared to technology such as that 
of the computers used on NASA 
spacecraft, yes. In terms of the uses 
you had in mind when you made your 
purchase, only unless you selected it 
that way. Obsolete is a relative term. 
When your computer can no longer 
handle the tasks you need, it is 
obsolete. 

Good hunting! Illl 



24 



February, 1 9B6 ON THREE 



Reading the Mail: 

Three Questions 



Manual Operation 

Dear Bob, 

A week ago I received two ON THREE 512K Memory 
Upgrade packages. Both were installed with very little 
problem. I also have on order a copy of Selector ///. The 
upgrade works fine. 

Now to my problem. Some time ago, I purchased Draw 
Oisr /// and now with the 512K Upgrade, I want to install 
Draw ON /// under Catalyst. In doing so, the program comes 
up with the can not find DRW3.DIR/DRW3DATA file message. 
I have been very carefiil in checking and rechecking to 
make sure everything was per your instructions. So now, I 
do not know what to try next. 

The second problem— After adding the Ramdisk driver to 
my SOS. DRIVER file everything worked fine. Then I wanted 
to add the .ONTIME driver. When I tried to read in the 
SOS.DRIVER file, the message "Badly Formatted Driver File" 
appeared. Can you assist in this problem. The Ramdisk is 
working just fine, but is there a way to enlarge the area fi?om 
280 blocks to 4S0 blocks? 

I will appreciate any assistance you can provide. 

John C. Laughlin 
Honolulu, HI 

The problem with installing Draw ON /// under Catalyst 
has been discussed previously in the magazine, but it is a 
recurring problem. Thus I'd like to put the correction in 
print again. There should have been an ERRATA sheet in the 
Draw ON box. There is an error in the manual relating to 
how to install Draw ON under Catalyst. 

On the bottom of page 111 of the Draw ON /// Graphics 
Tool User's Guide, the last line reads: 

Program path: .PR0FILE/CATALYST/DRAW.0N.3/SYSTEM.STARTUP 

To work properly under Catalyst, it should read: 

Program path: .PR0FILE/CATALYST/DRAW.0N.3,SYSTEM. STARTUP 

JVote the change, the last slash became a comma. The error 
is in the strange way that Catalyst sets the pre&x. 

The error message "Badly Formatted Driver File" that you 
have been getting is due to a bug in System Utilities 1.1. It 
allows you to create a SOS.DRIVER Gle larger than can be 
read back in. You can create it, but the next time you try to 
change it, the Configuration program will give you an error. 
Utilities 1.2 corrects this problem and allows you to build 
slightly larger driver files. 

(Note: Some of you may notice that a letter from John 
Laughlin was in the last issue. You may also remember that 
we lost his first letter. I just found it! Oh, well— the last will 
be Grst or something like that) 



Speed Kills 

Dear Sirs, 

I recently purchased a Trustor 30 fi:'om you and had 
trouble formatting it. When I tried to format it would han^ 
up, or run for six minutes and finish with a "SYSTEM 
FAILURE $01" or "Format error # 140. Internal program 
error" message. 

I was about ready to box it up and ship it back until I 
remembered that I had changed the regular 6502 chip in 
my Apple /// with a Rockwell 65C02 chip. When I changed 
back to the original 6502 chip, formatting of the Trustor 30 
went without a hitch. 

My question is— can I modify the Trustor 30 driver to 
work with the 65002 chip, and if yes, do I have to re-format 
the Trustor 30? 

Gerald D. Brown 
Mission Viejo, CA 



The problem you have experienced is (and will be) 
common with the 65C02 chip. While the 63002 chip 
purports to be exactly compatible with the existing 6502 
cMp—it is not! Certain instructions take a different amount 
of time to execute with the 65002 chip. The Trustor 30 
format routine is one piece of software that is sensitive to 
the differences. Drivers for some other interface cards may 
also give you problems. 

To answer your question, as long as the Trustor 30 is 
formatted, you can change back to the 65002. If you ever 
need to re-format, you will have to go back to the regular 
6502 chip. You may also be having a problem because of the 
speed and timing specifications for the different chips. 
Some of the more timing sensitive software may also fail 
with the 65002 chip. 

I assume that you are using the new chip to lower the 
power requirements in your system (the 65002 uses less 
power than the regular 6502). If this is the case, or if you 
want the few new instructions that the 65002 offers, try the 
65802 chip. It is also a CMOS (low power) device and like 
the 65002, is available in three speeds, 2- 4- and 6- 
MegaHertz. Tliis chipi has a powerful superset of the 
standard 65002 instructions and is completely compatible 
with existing hardware and software, since it reverts to the 
original 6502 cycle times. 

Since the 65082 (and the 65816 as well) duplicates the 
6502 timing, it is another alternative. In our use with the ///, 
it has performed flawlessly (also in the ][e, and we have in 
fact successfully formatted a Trustor with it. 



ON THREE February. 1 98B 



25 



Down Under remains Out of Toucli 

Dear Mr. Consorti, 

A friendly Apple executive recently gave me a copy of ON 
THREE (Vol. 2 #1). Ever since late 1982 I have been 
pestering Apple and varioijs dealers on how to get more out 
of my ///, and one issue of OIT THREE contains more useful 
information than I have got out of them in two years. 
Amazingly, it has taken that length of time for news of your 
existence to arrive here in Australia. 

Can you or your readers help me with some questions I 
have been asking for so long? (Some may well he answered 
in the SOS Reference Manual which I have also not been able 
to obtain here, even from Apple Australia) 

le there a book published on "beyond the manual" 

progranmiing techniques for the ///? My dealer claims to 

have heard of one, but can't identify it. 

— Are there any software routines available, callable 
from Basic, for matrix algebra? 

— Can Pascal be speeded up by changing the precision of 
reals? I found that Pascal executes at about one-third 
the speed of Basic for many of my programs, due to 
frequent calls to the TRAWSCEND Unit. Again, my 
dealer claims to know of.. 

— Any other tricks for speeding up number-crunching? 
Floating point processors? Basic compilers? 

— How can I trap special keys (eg alpha-lock, open- 
apple), or distinguish number-pad keys from their 
keyboard equivalents in my programs? 

Three further questions which were raised by perusing 
ON THREE: 

— "... the Apple /// keyboard is . . . completely software 
definable -under program control ..." (Apple ///—The 
User's Micro: p. 30). What does this mean, and how do 
you do it? 

— "[Lazarus's] very, very fast screen changes and 
movements were done with programming ease ..." 
(Why Is Everyone So Excited About Lazarus: p. 16). 
Again, how? Also are the text effects and special 
characters simply achieved by defining a special font, 
or is it something more devious? 

— "[Apple's] . . .formation of a bustness unit dedicated 
solely to . . . supporting the Apple ///... " (Letter from 
Jack D. Wood: p. 10). Did they, does it still exist, and if 
so what is it doing? 

I look forward to receiving a parcel of goodies from you, 
plus any advice you can give on the topics above. 

Chris J. Talbot 
Albury, NSW, Australia 

Vm glad that you enjoy ON THREE and hope that we can 
continue to be of service to you in the future. Regarding all of 
your questions, I don't know of many books about pro- 
gramming techniques on the Apple ///. It's hard enough to 
niid limited beginner information. Hopefully ON THREE 
will be able to shortly publish a series of articles on 
advanced programming practices. Vm also not familiar 
with any of the matrix routines you were asking about, 
maybe one of our readers could help. 

As far as I know there is no way to speed up the machine 
as of yet. I'm leaving myself open on this subject because ON 
THREE may be able to offer a speed up kit (new 65802 chip 
nuth software) if Apple allows it. There is a partial Basic 
Compiler available from DA. DataSystems. The address is 
3792 Windover, Hamburg, NY 14075. 



Some of our back Issues (which you should have by now) 
contain articles and programs on how to distinguish 
certain key combinations from others. Also in past Issues 
were articles on how to change the keyboard map of the ///. 
Regarding the Lazarus program, the text effects of moving 
windows and very fast scrolling speed were done using a 
mix of assembly language and Pascal (mostly assembly 
language). The special characters (smooth corners, arrows, 
bold characters and symbols) are simply a rede&ned 
character set. There are a number of font creation utilities 
available, some of them probably advertised in this issue. 

The "independent business unit" that was supposed to be 
devoted to the Apple /// existed for a very short time Just 
before the Apple ///was cancelled. As you probably know by 
now, Apple Computer is supporting the /// even less than it 
ever has (I don't know how that's possible— but it is true). 
Only through groups such as ON THREE will the full 
potential of the machine be realized. You can help us and 
your fellow Australians by making them aware of ON 
three's existence. 

Poking Aroiuid 

Gentlemen: 

Since I haven't heard from you lately, I thought it to be 
about time to write again and say I've missed reading the 
best Apple /// source I have. 

Your last issue of ON THREE suggested the development 
of a product that will let the mouse work on other software. 
Can you give me some information on it please. 

I wanted to let you know I used the keyboard modification 

program from one of the earlier DOM's. I got tired of the 
shift key and special characters needed in VisiCalc. I turned 
the top row of the keyboard upside down. Now 1/! is ! /I. I did 
the same with the quote. It works great! 

I have come across a number of Apple ] [ program that I 
want to convert to run in native mode Business Basic. When 
I come to the Apple ] [ PEEKs and POKEs I get lost in a real 
hurry. I understand Apple-Con will convert some but not 
the ones I have worked with. Is there a good source for 
identifying these and what thefr equivalents would be in 
Business Basic? 

Looking forward to your next issue. 

Larry Paine 
Yuma, AZ 

We have completed development of the utUltythat lets you 
use the mouse from other programs. It is a part of the 
ONTIME Desktop Manager. It will allow you to use the 
mouse as replacements for the arrow, RETURN and ESCAPE 

keys in your current programs. Move the mouse down and 
to the right in VisiCalc and your cell cursor will move down 
and to the right. Likewise for all other programs that use 
the arrow keys for movement. 

In regards to the Apple ][ programs, we have one of the 
best sources in the world— our Editor, Val Goldlng. I'm 
sure that if you document what PEEKs and POKEs you 
need information about, Val will know. He's an ardent 
Apple ][ (and now///— right Val?) fan and I'm sure he can 
help you. 

In general, Applesoft PEEKs and POKEs may have either 
Gxed or variable meanings, depending on memory address, 
while CALLS almost always relate to a speciG.c machine 
language program that loads with the Basic program. If 
you will submit a printout, I'm sure Val can decode them 
for you. 



2B 



February. 1 QBB ON THREE 



Titanic Questions 

Dear Bob, 

I must say that I am delighted with my new MicroSci 
A143. Thante. But I am impatiently waiting for Selector ///. 
I am not about to wipe out my "protected" disks with 
Catalyst. Which reminds me that those of us who are now 
without protection are the Apple /// owners who have been 
abandoned and left high and dry and facing a long future 
without back-ups for our protected disks. Is there any way 
this situation could be changed, now that Apple /// owners 
have been left to fend for themselves? 

Of course, I am still very satisfied with my Apple ///. It 
keeps working away faithfully and steadily. What a beauti- 
ftil tool it is. In fact, we now have two Apple ///'s— one for me 
and one for my wife! That has helped the scheduling 
problems considerably. It also eases some of the anxiety 
about a possible breakdown. The chances of two being down 
at the same time is slim. By the way, is somebody going to 
come out with a care, repair, and maintenance manual for 
us? There is another worthy project for you. 

I am happy and reassured to see that you are still sticking 
in there, though I must admit that I get a httle concerned 
when I do not hear from you. Then again, with all of the 
work that you seem to be doing I can see where you could be 
a bit overwhelmed at this point. Could you find some time to 
handle a couple of questions? 

1— A dealer gave me a kit called an Interlace Upgrade, 
when he heard that I had an Apple ///. However, he did 
not have the directions nor did he have anyone to 
install this for me. Help! Could you tell me how to do 
it? I installed your clock without any difficulty, but 
then you provided clear directions. Is there any 
possibility that you could provide directions for this 
installation? 

2— How do I get color for my hi-res pictures in Emulation 
Mode? Lo-res in Emulation is beautiful, as is the work 
I do with Draw OW" ///, of course. But hi-res in 
Emulation is a total loss. The grandchildren would 
enjoy the games a lot more if they were in color! Surely 
there must be a way. On your recomimendation, I 
purchased my Zenith ZVM135. 1 had the idea that it 
would do the job all around. As you know, it is both 
RGB and composite with NTSC and green monitor 
choice. What is the problem and what can be done 
about it? 

3— Do the Titan Emulation cards give any trouble? They 
promise to give me 64K to 128K in Apple ] [ Emula- 
tion, including a gameport and a RAIVLdisk. Who 
knows, maybe with that I would get color too? I have 
seen them advertised in httle corners here and there 
but I have not seen a trustworthy evaluation . 

I am looking forward to that day when the next issue of 
ON THREE arrives. It seems like a long, long time. Your 
Trustor 10 and 512K upgrade are very tempting, but I 
cannot afford them now. What I am really looking forward 
to getting is your Selector /// and another gameport to put 
into my second Apple /// for the grandchildren. I hope that 
Selector will be ready soon. 

Francis K Wagschal 
New York, NY 

Per your (andmanyotherApple/// owners) suggestions, 
ON THREE will set up a software update and backup service. 
Look for information regarding it in the next issue. The 
'Apple /// Care' manual is a good idea, I'll see what I can do. 

To install the interlace kit, you will need to get 'inside' 
your Apple ///. Since you have installed a clock before, you 



shouldn't have any problems. After taking the bottom plate 
off" of the main chassis, look at your interlace kit. It should 
contain 1 large chip and 1 wire, cable, switch assembly. 

At location 'HI ' on the main logic board, you will Gnd a 
connector that mates to the end of the cable assembly. From 
Spont-to-back the one wire should slide into position 4 in the 
connector. Next, locate the large chip on the main logic 
board at location 'G9'. It's the sajne size as the new chip in 
the interlace kit. Using a chip puller or flat head screw- 
driver, remove the chip from, the main logic board and 
replace it with the new chip. Be careful to orient the new 
chip the same way as the old one— with the notch facing 
forward. 

Next, look at location Hi 4 ' on the main logic board. It will 
be marked with the white lettering 'J19' and should hold a 
three prong connector. If your logic board doesn't have the 
three prongs soldered into the board, but rather three holes 
in the board, you will have to get an appropriate sized pin 
and solder it into the hole. Hopefully one of your machines 
will have the connectors. In any case, attach the connectors 
on the front-most two pins in the three-pin package. 

You have completed the core of the installation. The next 
part entails putting the machine back together. As you re- 
assemble your ///, the loose wire with the switch connector 
should be routed upwards through the back of the internal 
disk drive area. After the bottom is screwed onto the 
chassis, locate one of the small holes on the back chassis— 
to the top right of the internal disk drive. You will put the 
switch assembly through this hole and secure it with the 
nut assembly. Finish putting back the cover of the machine 
and you are done. 

The switch is an ON/OFF switch and it turns interlace 
mode on and off. It is not possible to determine which way 
(on or off) it was installed, so after you turn your machine 
back on, try flipping the switch a couple of times to see what 
happens to your screen. Remember that while in text mode, 
the interlace kit makes the 'look' of the text clearer. In 
graphics mode, only use interlace while in graphics buffer 
1. If you have interlace on while viewing buffer 2, the 
contents of buffer 1 and buffer 2 will be interlaced, providing 
you with a very eye-straining experience. 

I'll have to let our graphics expert, Mel Astrahan, answer 
the NTSC video emulation problem, I'm not sure what the 
answer is. Hopefully Mel will have an answer shortly for 
you. To the best of our knowledge the Titan card doesn't do 
any damage to your machine. 

You may not have noticed, but the 5 12K Memory Board is 
now only $399 after rebate. The Selector /// package has 
been shipped for a few months now. I look forward to your 
future comments and hope that we can continue helping 
you in the future. 

Backing Up Trustor 30 

Dear Sirs, 

Several months ago we purchased the 512K Memory 
Upgrade for our Apple ///. We have installed it and it works 
very well. Thank you for making such a useful product 
available. 

On the demo disk that accompanied the memory upgrade 
was an ad for your Trustor hard disks. Can you provide us 
with more information on these? Is a tape backup available 
for the Trustor disks? I cannot imagine backing up a 34 
MegaByte disk to floppies. 

We appreciate your dedication to the Apple /// user and 
look forward to a continuing relationship with ON THREE. 

Samuel Marshall 
Edmonton, Alta. Canada 



ON THREE February, 1 3S6 



2y 



I'm glad that you are enjoying the use of your expanded 
51SKApple /// system. Regarding the Trustor 30, it is an 
extremely fast 34-MegaByte hard disk unit, about &ve times 
faster than the Apple ProFile hard disk. It can hold 69,632 
blocks ofinformation. Although the Apple ///is supposed to 
be able to work with disk drives up to 3S-MBytes, it can 
actually address up to 16-MB at a time. Because of this, we 
have partitioned the drive as three devices. The Grst two are 
1 6-MB disks, while the third functions as a two-MB disk. The 
Trustor 30 also works with aU Apple /// software and is 
compatible with both Catalyst and the Selector /// Program 
Switching Utility Priced at only $1999, it's a great buy. 

Currently a tape backup is not available for the Trustor 
disk. The only backup method is the Backup /// program 
from Apple. Making backups isn 't really that bad if you use 
the right kind of backup disk drive. For example, the new 
UnWisk 3.5 800K drive holds 1600 blocks at a time. If you 
incrementally backup your Gles, it may take no more than 
10-15 minutes each day. 

Needs More Memory in Emulation 

Dear Ms. Schanz, 

I have a question about the Apple ///. While in the Apple ] [ 
Emulation mode, you only have access to approximately 
48K of memory. This is sometimes not enough, as programs 
such as 'Newsroom' require more. 

I saw that a product called Titan /// Plus ] [ is on the 
market now. Do you feel ON THREE will he getting involved 
with a product such as this. The Titan /// Flus ] [ gives you 
64K of memory, plus gives you the ability of using ProDOS. 

The Apple /// is a fabulous machine, but quite limited in 
the software available and not being able to run Apple ] [ 
software. I look forward to your comments, and also for ON 
THREE magazine. 

Charlotte Story 
New Britain, CT 



ON THREE will not be introducing a product that 
enhances the Apple ][ emulation mode. Since Titan has 
already come out with the 64K enhancement and should 
now have released the full //e emulator two interface card 
set, ON THREE will not try to develop products like these. As 
I understand, these products work Just &ne and allow your 
machine to mimic an Apple ][plus with Language Card or 
an Apple //e. 

We have already published an overview of the regular /// 
Plus ][ interface card (January 1 986) and expect topubUsh 
more details on the new/// Plus //e product from Titan as 
soon as they are available. 

Now is tlie Time 

Dear Mr. Consorti 

Being a relatively new subscriber, I am still in the process 
of reading and entering the program listings from the 
previous issues. 

I was very pleased with the program PoTir__BxtraL_ 

Blocks and__More that was published in the January, 

1983 (premier) issue. It works like a charm and also 
illustrates the epitome of good programming practice. It is 
one of the most readable and easily understood programs I 
have ever seen. 

At any rate, the one thing it didn't do was to place the 
current date and time on the disk, and since I am a loyal ON 
THREE supporter and purchased your ONTIME clock, I 
thought it should be put to good use. I have taken the liberty 
of modifying your original program and am enclosing a 
copy of the changed portions of the program only. 

If the option is selected from the menu, it now auto- 
matically places the current date and time on the disk to be 
updated. 

Vincent F. Latona 
Calabasas, CA 91302 

[Cont'd on page 29] 



Fooling -the Apple DMP 
[from page 21) 

1530 IF LEN(ST0RE$)=1 THEN STORE$="'' :GOTO 1 

550 
1540 ST0RE$=LEFT$(ST0RE$,LEN(ST0RE$)-1) 
1550 PRINT KEYPRESS$;" " ;KEYPRESS$; :REM * B 

ACKSPACE mo DELETE Cl^RACTER * 
1560 GOTO 1410 
1570 REM * IF INPUT IS NOT A RETURN, CHECK F 

OR ESC * 
1580 IF ASC(KEYPRESS$)<>13 THEN 1610 
1590 RETURN 
1600 REM * IF INPUT IS NOT m ESC, NEXT ENTR 

Y * 
1610 IF KErPRESS$<>CHR$(27) THEN 1410 
1620 IF STORE$="" THEN 1410 
1630 FOR CHAR=1 TO LEN(STORE$) :REM * ESC,DE 

LETE ALL INPUT * 
1640 PRINT CHR$(8);" »;CHR$(8); 
1650 NEXT CHAR 
1660 STORE$="" 
1670 GOTO 1410 

1680 REM ***************** 
1690 REM * INSTRUCTIONS FOR USING PROGRAM* 
1700 REM ***************** 
1710 PRINT 
1720 PRINT TAB(9);''* * INSTRUCTICMS FOR TH 

E ADMP PRINTER PROGRAM * 

*":PRINT:PRINT 



1730 



1740 



1750 



1760 



1770 
1780 

1790 
1800 



PRlNT'The ADMP PRINTER program is desi 
gned to setup the print -functions for 
the Apple Dot Matrix Printer. A select 
ion menu is used to chose the many pri 
ntinq options available. "; 
PRINT" these options may be selected i 
n any order or any combination by oneo 
r two keystrokes. A-fter each selectio 
n, the program lists the options choos 
en.' 

PRINT:PRINT:PRINT"Before going to the 
^ono-'Jino nemi, HAKE SURE that the PRI 



and 
the 



in the SELECT mode 
tor the printer to 



nt cc«nwands 
the printer 



must be m 



, In 

acce 

fr 

! 



n^^h 



NTER is C«N 

order -for 
pt the pri 
the menu, 
e SELECT mode." 
PRINT:PRINT:PRINT''The 
ns selected -from thi s 
ain in the printer 

r is TURNED OFF. Turning the printer o 
"f-f will reset the pr intTng-funct ions ba 
ck to the normal (de-fault) mode." 
PRINT:PRINT:PRINT 

PRINT TAB<25);"* PRESS mi KEY FOR MEN 
U *" 

GET MENU$ 
RETURN 



printing -funct io 
program wi 1 1 rem 
unt 1 1 the printe 



2B 



February. 1 SSB ON THREE 



PROGRAM Four extra blocks and more 

(* ON THREE Magazine *) 

(* January 1983 *) 

(* Page 8 *) 

(* Written by Bob Consorti *) 

(* Auto time routine added *) 

(* by Vince Latona *) 
(* December 12, 1983 *) 

USE APPLESTUFF; 

PROCEDURE Auto_time; 

VAR Year, Month, Day, Dayofwk, Hr, Min, Sec, Thou : INTEGER; 

BEGIN (* Main of Auto_time *) 

Option ('Automatic change of Time and Date'); 

Prompt start; 

Block num := 2; 

UNITREAD (Device num, Block buf. Block length. Block num. Block mode); 

Block num; 

CLOCKINFO ( Year, Month, Day, Dayofwk, Hr, Min, Sec, Thou); 

Block_buf [29] := (Day + Month * 32) MOD 256; 

Year := Year - 1900; 

Block_buf [30] := Year * 2; 

IF (Month >= 8) THEN 
Block_buf [30] := Block_buf [30] + 1; 

Block_buf [31] := Min; 

Block_buf [32] := Hour; 

UNITWRITE (Device_num, Block_buf, Block_length, Block_num, Block_mode) 

Block num; 

END; (* of PROCEDURE Auto_time *) 

PROCEDURE Do_options; 

VAR Answer: CHAR; 

BEGIN 
Option ('Options menu'); 
WRITELN ('1— Get extra disk space'); 
WRITELN ('2— Add or change the disk volume number'); 
WRITELN; 

WRITELN (' Change the disk date & time of creation '); 

WRITELN; 

WRITELN ('3 Manually (your choice of date & time)'); 

WRITELN ('4 Automatically— (today's date & time)'); 

WRITELN; 

WRITE ('Enter 1, 2, 3 or 4— > '); 

READ (Answer); 

WRITELN; 

CASE Answer OF 

'1': Four more niocks; 

'2': New volume; 

'3': New times; 

'4': Auto time 



DE CLASSIFIEDS 



Classified rates: $1 per word, $25 minimum. Copy must 
reach us 60 days prior to cover date, e.g., February 1 st for 
April issue, which would be mailed March 1st. 

Subscriber Discounts: .50 per word, $12.50 miminum, 
subject to the following restrictions; 

• Non-commercial ads only 

• No items valued over $100 



Apple\A/rit;er: A footnote 
(from page 1 S) 

This study into the pecu- 
larities of the Apple Writer /// 
footnote procedure has un- 
covered ways to incorporate 
multiple line footnotes into 
printed text. In addition, it 
has documented the relation- 
ship between characters/line 
and maximum allowable foot- 
note lines for both constant 
size and variable size foot- 
notes. No way has been found 
to approach the figure of 
1024 footnote characters per 
page as stated on page 94 of 
the manual. The maximum 
number of characters appears 
to be 381, consisting of three 
lines of 127 characters each. 

Apple Computer, Inc. gra- 
ciously reviewed a draft of 
this paper and acknowledged 
that the findings were correct. 
They point out that if the 
documentation is misleading, 
it was not intended to be. 
Certainly my experience with 
other Apple documentation 
would support this claim. 
They also volunteered the 
information that the docu- 
mentation for AppleWriter 
for the //e does point out that 
footnote length is limited to 
128 characters per entry and 
includes ". . .other informa- 
tion regarding footnotes." 
Therefore, it may be that 
these findings are applicable 
to more than AppleWriter ///. 



OTHERWISE 
BEGIN 
WRITELN; 

WRITELN (CHR (Bell), 'Invalid answer') 
Done := FALSE 
END 
END 
END; 



Three Questions [from page SB) 

Thanks, Vince, I'm sure the addition of saving the time to 
disk is a great enhancement and will be of use to our 
readers. I'd also like to encourage our readers to send in 
their improvements to programs we have published in the 
past. Remember, ON THREE is your Apple ///support group 
and to provide the support we would like, we must rely on 
contributions such as yours. fJJ] 



ON THREE February. 1 9B6 



29 



Creating a System: 



In the Beginning . . . 



kevin fitzmaurice 



There has been, and will continue 
to be, much talk about how programs 
should be structured or modular in 
design. The reasons for this are 
plentiful, and include the obvious 
reason of being able to update sepa- 
rate portions of a program without 
having to change any other parts. 
While Pascal programmers seem to 
think that Pascal has a monopoly on 
structure, they're a bit shortsighted. 

Even hardware is supposed to be 
modular nowadays. In order to make 
operating systems modular on main- 
frames, the concept of drivers was 
conceived. Apple borrowed both the 
idea of a modular operating system 
and some of the terms for it from 
the mainframes when when they 
created their Sophisticated Operat- 
ing System for the Apple ///. SOS 
(pronounced "sauce"), consists of 
the following separate modules or 
files: SOS.KERNEL, SOS.DRIVER, 
and SOS.INTERP. The SOS.KER- 
NEL module contains the proprietary 
part of Apple's operating system for 
the ///and is written in (yuk! ) Pascal. 
You may think of this as the heart of 
your machine. Only by using system 
calls is it possible to communicate 
with this portion of SOS, and only 
someone working on an advanced 
software application would have 
need to do this. The SOS.INTERP 
module is, as the name implies, the 
interpreter portion of the operating 
system. There is no need for us to be 
concerned with the details of this 
portion of SOS. What we will be 
concerned with is the SOS module 
Apple makes readily available to us: 
the SOS.DRIVER file. 



SOS Drivers 

The module SOS.DRIVER is 
actually further broken down into 
several more modules. In the "Stan- 
dard Device Drivers Manual" we are 



told of those Apple wrote for us under 
their respective names of Console 
Driver, Graphics Driver, Printer 
Driver, RS-232 Driver, and Audio 
Driver. To make it easier on yourself 
you can think of drivers as machine 
language subroutines (software) that 
literally "drive" a part of your 
computer system. 

You as an owner of an Apple /// 
have access to these drivers and the 
ability to change them to fit the 
configuration of your hardware sys- 
tem. Using the SOS Utilities, it 
becomes easier to manipulate and 
change the operating system in effect 
by changing these drivers. Another 
way to think of drivers is as special- 
ized portions of SOS that interface a 
piece of hardware or, in the case of 
the Graphics driver, pieces of soft- 
ware into SOS. Some day you may 
want to write a new driver for some- 
thing, perhaps a video disk. You can 
do this with the help of the recently 
released "Device Writer's Guide". 

Perhaps one of the first things to 
understand is that to SOS, every- 
thing is a file (device). Your printer, 
modem, and even your keyboard are 
all files in the eyes of SOS. The 
somewhat unusual but practical 
reasoning behind this concept is that 
it makes it possible for SOS to handle 
and use every part of our system in 
the same way. This then allows us to 
regard our program using the same 
approach to each part of our system. 
If we must later change one part of 
the system for another, it is easy to 
do, because we need only change the 
name and SOS will be able to handle 
it without any program rewriting. 

Apple's terminology for the parts 
of the computer that perform some 
form of communication is devices 
(files) . Devices are further separated 
into those that store communica- 
tions or information, and those that 
retrieve and/or send information. 



Storage devices like disk drives are 
called block devices because they 
store information in blocks of 512 
bytes or characters. The other types 
of devices are called character 
devices because they are busy send- 
ing or receiving one character at a 
time. These include your printer, 
keyboard and screen (console), 
and the RS-232C port. To repeat, 
one type works with blocks of 
characters, and the the other with 
single characters. 

There are a few things about drivers 
that we must be sure we understand. 
Even if you have a printer correctly 
plugged into your Apple and your 
program is capable of using it, it may 
still not be able to work. You must 
have a printer driver loaded into your 
system first. Further, even if there is 
a driver loaded but it is not con- 
figured to your printer or it is 
inactive, you will still not be able to 
use your printer. Drivers take up 
computer memory, and SOS can oper- 
ate on up to 24 devices (drivers) at 
once. Enough of your computer's 
memory is allocated to handle 24 such 
devices (51K for a 256K machine) 
but that eats up a lot of RAM. If we 
were ever to need more room for 
drivers, that portion of SOS would 
have to be rewritten. (Not likely, 
with support no longer available 
from Apple. ...ed) 

This is not likely to be a problem in 
the foreseeable future, because there 
just aren't anywhere near 24 types of 
peripherals available. To conserve 
memory, it is best to configure only 
those drivers you need or may need 
into a system. This will keep it 
simple for SOS and make it faster to 
operate. You will need at least the 
Console driver (screen and keyboard) 
loaded to be able to do anything. 
W^hen you get a new peripheral like 
the ProFile, Trustor, or UniDisk 3.5, 
you also get a new driver for it which 



30 



February, 1 BBB ON THREE 



must be loaded into your system with 
every program that you intend to use 
with the new drive. Thus all new 
peripherals cause us to reconfigure 
our system by adding new drivers or 
changing old ones. Each time you 
reconfigure you must then save the 
new system on those disks with the 
programs you intend to use the 
reconfigured drivers with. 

General Information on SCP 

The most unique and helpful part 
of SOS is the System Configuration 
Program (SCP). This is option "S" 
from the main menu on the System 
Utilities disk. There are six options 
on this menu, one of which is the 
choice to quit to the main menu. This 
program is too powerful for you to use 
the panic button (ESCAPE) to exit 
its functions. You must use the "Q" 
(for quit) option to get back to the 
main menu. However, the ESCAPE 
key can be used to get back to the 
main SCP menu from its other sub- 
menus. Let's take a tour through the 
SCP program and then actually 
configure a new system. 

Our top choice from the SCP menu 
is "R" for 'Read a Driver File'. If the 
cursor is not already over the "R", 
position it there by using the cursor 
keys or just typing ''R". Now press 
[RETURN] . This moves us to another 
screen which tells us we haven't read 
any drivers yet and how much 
memory we have available for them. 
We can't generate a system until we 
have read in some device drivers with 
which* to work. Of course, some 
drivers are already in the system or 
we would not be able to even see the 
screen, but as far as the SCP program 
is concerned, there are none present. 
When using the SCP program, this is 
the point where we will normally 
load in those drivers we want to 
gather together for a new system. For 
example, you may have just pur- 
chased Access III and, since it comes 
'naked', want to install some drivers 
with it. First, by supplying the neces- 
sary pathnames and inserting the 
appropriate disks, you would read in 
the drivers you wanted to transfer to 
the Access /// disk. 

Next, you may have to use the "D" 
(for delete) option of the SCP menu 
because you read in more drivers 
than you needed, so press [ESCAPE] 
to return to the SCP menu and 



choose option "D". When you have 
deleted all the unneeded drivers on 
the Access /// program, leave that 
menu by again pressing [ESCAPE]. 
The next option down on the SCP 
menu is the "E" or 'Edit Driver 
Parameters" option. This is used to 
modify the variables of one driver at 
a time to suit the variable require- 
ments of your peripheral device. We 
will do this a little later when we 
configure a printer for your system. 

The "C" (for Change System 
Parameters) option from the SCP 
menu is for changing the keyboard 
layout, the character font, and 
whether or not we want inverse or 
normal video display. Sometime in 
the future you may wish to use this 
option to change your keyboard from 
the standard QWERTY to the superior 
Dvorak keyboard layout. Once you 
have the drivers you want and they 
have been edited for your hardware, 
you are ready for the final feat of 
creating your own system. Just 
return to the SCP menu and choose 
option "G" (for Generate New System) . 
SOS will then put together and make 
available for copying, the system you 
have built up using the various 
menus and sub-menus. If it is OK, 
then all you need to do is place the 
appropriate disks in the built-in 
system drive and it will copy 'your' 
system to it. What it actually does is 
to replace any SOS.DRIVER file 
with your newly configured one. In 
summary, all that configuring a 
system involves is collecting a new 
group of drivers which will become 
the new SOS.DRIVER file. 

Configuring an Epson Printer 

Now let's actually add a useful 
driver to the Business Basic system. 
We will configure an Epson MX-lOO 
to use the Universal Parallel Inter- 
face (UPI). Step by step, here's how 
to do it. First, of course, we boot the 
System Utilities disk and choose the 
SCP program from the main menu. 

The first order of business is to 
read in the drivers from the Business 
Basic disk. Choose the "R" option, 
put the Business Basic disk in the 
built-in drive and press [RETURN]. 
This will read in all drivers present 
on the Business Basic disk. 

Check now to see if there is an 
inactive .PRINTER driver listed. 



(Inactivity is indicated by an asterisk 
j*j in the listing.) This is the driver 
you want to edit to conform to the 
requirements of the Epson MX-IOO. If 
it is not present, then we need to read 
it in from the Utilities Data disk. To 
do so, place that diskette in the built-in 
drive and enter the following path- 
name: .D1/S0S.DRIVER/PRINTER. 
It will now be added to your list of 
drivers. Now put the System Utilities 
diskette back in the built-in drive, 
press [ESCAPE] and, after returning 
to the SCP menu, choose the "E" 
option. 

Now select the .PRINTER driver 
as the one you wish to edit. Ignore all 
items now being displayed except 
numbers four and six. If number four 
shows that .PRINTER is inactive, 
then select it and change it to active 
by selecting "Activity Status" and 
pressing [RETURN]. You will be 
asked whether you want this driver 
to be active or inactive. Type "A" to 
make it active and the parameter 
display will be changed to reflect the 
new status. 

Now choose number six (Configu- 
ration Block Data) for editing. Here 
we enter the hexadecimal numbers 
00 in place of whatever is in column 
zero, the numbers 00 in place of 
whatever is in column one, the 
numbers 40 in place of whatever is in 
column two, the numbers 00 in place 
of whatever is in column three, and 
the numbers 5A in place of whatever 
is in column four. Then press 
[ESCAPE] until you have arrived 
back at the SCP main menu. Please 
note that the Standard Device 
Drivers Manual gives different num- 
bers for the Epson than those shown 
here, however they do not work, 
whereas these do. 

From the main SCP menu, select 
the "G" option. This checks and 
generates the Driver file for the 
system you have just put together. 
Once you get the message that you 
have successfully generated a new 
system, put the Business Basic disk 
in the built-in drive and press 
[RETURN]. You can now use an 
Epson MX- 100 with the Universal 
Parallel Interface from BASIC. 

Now is a good time to copy this 
system disk file to a separate diskette 
which is reserved for similar files. 
On this diskette, you should rename 



ON THREE February. 1 QBG 



31 



it to something that will trigger 
your memory at a later date, like 
EPSON.DRIVER. When it is time to 
use this file in another system, it 
will have to again be renamed to 
SOS. DRIVER in order to be recog- 
nized by SOS as a system file. 

As an extra bonus, figure 1 is a 
chart of MX-lOO control codes that 
you can enter into your text using the 
Control-V function of Apple Writer /// 
or similar functions in other word 
processors which will allow you to 
specify print size, density, and other 
fun things. The page number refer- 
ences correspond to those of my 
Epson MX-lOO manual. 

SOS and General Considerations 

The philosophy that I would like to 
propose using SOS is not a memory 
saver, since at present on a 256K 
machine, conserving memory loses 
some of its urgency. What I suggest 
you do is develop one SOS diskette 
for all your programs except the 
utilities. The utilities need drivers 
for formatting disks that are not 
needed elsewhere. Your 'standard' 
SOS disk should contain the latest 
SOS.KERNEL and SOS.INTERP 
files, as well as SOS. DRIVER with 
all of the following drivers: .PROFILE, 
.PRINTER, .CONSOLE, .RS-232, 
.AUDIO, .GRAFIX, and any others 
you may wish to use. 

Once you have this standard SOS 
disk, instead of having to worry 
about which drivers you have with 
each program or having to update 
each SOS. DRIVER file on each 
program, you can just load in this 
SOS disk before any program. For 
example, you can always leave it in 

the system built-in drive at night, 
and in the morning just turn on 
your ///, which will boot this system 
and ask you to insert the Pascal 
system. Just load whatever program 
you want to run, and it will run with 
this system and will remain until you 
reboot. 

Of course, we can make different 
SOS disks. We might want to save 
some memory after all and have a 
SOS disk with only the .CONSOLE 
driver loaded. Besides the conven- 
ience of knowing just what system 
you have and being able to update 
just one disk (backup copies too!) 
there are other advantages. If this is 



indeed a policy of ///'ers then sup- 
pliers can sell us disks without the 
system on them and thus get more 
onto a disk. 

You can have different systems for 
the same program. If you use Apple- 
Writer /// with the Dvorak, maybe 
your spouse will want to use it with 
the QWERTY. Rather than having 
to use your backup copy so that you 
can have one configured for each 
keyboard, you can have one SOS disk 
configured for Dvorak and one for 
QWERTY. You therefore will not 
need two copies of each program 
disk, but rather two SOS disks. Just 
load in the system disk you want 
first, and then any program can use 
it, no matter how it is actually 
configured. 

It is likely that you someday may 
need a separate SOS disk anyway. It 
may first happen when you try to add 
the ProFile driver to your Utilities 
disk. There is simply not enough 
room on the nearly full Utilities disk 
for this large driver. To solve this, we 
have to create what Apple calls a 
two-stage boot disk. This is the same 
thing that I have been talking about 
as a SOS disk. This two-stage boot 
disk can then be used with all two- 
stage boot programs. 

Another way to take advantage of 
SOS drivers is to use a T-switchbox 
with the RS-232C port on the back of 
the Apple ///. You can then configure 
several RS-232 drivers onto a SOS 
formatted disk, one for each device 
connected to the T-switch. You must 
use slightly different names for the 
drivers such as RS. 232.1, etc. This 
way you can have a letter-quality 
printer, a modem, a fast printer or 
anything else hooked up to your 
Apple, all at the same time. I know of 
several sources for T-switchers. Here 
are three: 

Giltronics, Inc. 970 San Antonio Road, Palo 
Alto, CA 94303 

Inmac, 2465 Augustine Drive, Santa Clara, 
CA 95051 

Visible Computer Supply Corp., 3623 Stern 
Drive, St Charles, IL 60174. 

Some boxes are available for six 
devices. You just flip the switch and 
either your program has just the 
right RS-232 driver on it, or you load 
a system disk with the RS-232 you 
need, otherwise your program refers 
to the correct one by name. 1 11 1 



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^ ^J'ue &one auiay uittli my desk altogetljer 

AH If use noui is an App'^ /// uiork station 
and ON THREE'S ONTIME Desktop Manager' ' 

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ON THREE Presents . . . 



Draw ON III is a powerful and versatile graphics tool designed exolusively 
for the Apple III and the Apple III Plus oomputers. Draw ON III transforms 
your Apple III into a combination drafting table, easel and sketch pod. 
Draw ON works in all of the Apple Ills Color and BlockAA/hite graphics 
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Features such as rubber bonding of lines, user adjustable grids, built-in 
help screens and easy to follow menus make Draw ON III the ONLY 
graphics package for the Apple III that is both powerful and easy to use. 
Combined with on excellent {Apple styling) instruction and tutorial 
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as to what you con do with Draw ON is your imagination. 

Draw ON gives on individual the power of a graphic arts studio. Use it in 
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Draw ON /// Has Hastery Over^tgl 
Illusions!! 



Tt7t7tT t7?t ^^ 

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Mi would you like your Draii DH /// to do? Profess ional-oiuality diagrans, 
organization charts, floorplans, coiplex illustrations and original artwork 
are all possible! You can now do CM) on your Apple /// with Drau Dfl /// ! 



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To control Draw ON either a joystick, mouse or the keyboard is used. Since 
there are no mice available for the Apple III, ON THREE has enabled 
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After creating your chart, table or other piece of art you will probably wont 
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ON also works with all of the printers the PKASO and PKASO/U interface 
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IDS Color Prism printer and the PKASO interface card. 




that your other programs create by adding borders, textures and different 
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M A 



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M J J 
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<5i =U.S. ^ =Forei9n> 
Optional Equipment 

Cursor III Joystick, Apple Mouse lie or Apple II Graphics Tablet {Graphics 
Tablet version costs $50 extra), RGB Color Monitor, Dot Matrix Printer 

A PKASO or PKASOIU interface cord is needed if you don't have on 
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Draw ON requires an Apple III or Apple III Plus with a minimum of 256K 
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